english-grammar

英语的语法是一系列的规则, 只要理清和遵循这些规则, 就能写出正确的句子
本文的作用旨在脑中形成一个能够检查英语语法正确性的模型.
主从复合句: 至少包含两个谓语(主句一个从句一个)的句子

句子结构

句子成分

  1. 主语: 名词, 动词不定式, 动名词, 名词性从句(主语从句)
  2. 谓语: 动词
  3. 宾语: 名词, 动词不定式, 动名词
  4. 表语: 名词, 形容词, 副词, 动词不定式, 动名词, 分词
  5. 补语(主语/宾语补足语): 名词, 形容词, 动词不定式, 分词
  6. 定语: 形容词, 动词不定式, 动名词, 分词
  7. 状语: 副词, 动词不定式, 分词

[状语]+[前置定语]+主语+[后置定语]+[状语]+谓语+[前置定语]+宾语+[后置定语]+[补语]+[状语]

主语+系动词+[前置定语]+表语+[后置定语]+[补语]

补语修饰谁看具体含义

定语

定语是广义的形容词, 限定主语或宾语对象的范围.

定语和补语区别: 补语强调补充, 定语限定范围

状语

状语是广义的副词. 说明谓语或表语的状态(时间, 地点, 程度, 目的, 结果)

五大句型

  1. 主语 + 不及物动词
    e.g. He cried.
  2. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语
    e.g. The dinner smells good.
    e.g. This is an English-Chinese dictionary.
  3. 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语
    e.g. He enjoys reading
  4. 主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语
    e.g. He brought you a dictionary.
  5. 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语
    e.g. I often find him at work.
    e.g. They painted the door green.

三大从句

定语从句

something 为先行词, 定语从句不能用 which

定语从句三要素: 先行词、关系词、关系词在从句中充当的成分.

  1. 关系代词(who/whom/which/that/whose)引导的定语从句
    1. 先行词是人(用 who/whom/that)
      The man who/that is standing there is my English teacher. (在从句中作主语不可省略)
      The man (whom/that) I am talking to is from the US. (在从句中作宾语可省略)
    2. 先行词是物 (用 which/that)
      The book which/that is on my desk is the best saller of 2018. (在从句中作主语不可省略)
      The book (which/that) I am reading is the best seller of 2018. (在从句中作宾语可省略)
    3. 先行词是人或物具备的东西(用 whose)
      The man whose hair is brown is the chairman of the meeting.
      I am looking for the book whose cover is red.
    4. 只用 that 不用 which 的情况
      1. 多少: no, little, few, much
      2. 不定代词: some-, -thing, any-, all, every-, none, no-, neither…
      3. 唯一: the only, the one
      4. 恰好: the very/right + 先行词
      5. 人和物: 先行词中既有人又有物
        They talk about the thing and people that were unforgetable. (在从句中作主语不可省略)
      6. 最高级: 形容词最高级 + 先行词
      7. 序数词: 序数词 + 先行词
  2. 关系副词(when/where/why)引导的定语从句
    1. 先行词是事件(用 when)
      I still remember the day when we had the first class in this hall.
    2. 先行词是地点(用 where)
      I still remember the city where we visited ten years ago.
    3. 先行词为原因(用 why)
      I don’t know the reason why you are absent from the meeting.
    4. 关系副词 when, where, why = 介词 + which
      The house in which(=where) Lu Xun used the live is now a museum.
  3. 非限制性定语从句
    1. 先行词与定语从句往往有逗号隔开, 不能用 that 引导
    2. 起补充说明的作用, 如果去掉, 主句的意思仍然清楚
      Jim passed the driving test, which surprised everybody in the office
  4. as 引导的定语从句
    As is known to all, the earth is round.
    John, as you know, is a famous writer.
    He is from the south, as we can see from his accent.

状语从句

状语从句在复合句中修饰主句、主句中的动词等.
由从属连词引导, 与主语连接, 常用逗号与主句分开. 如果位于句末, 其前一般不用逗号.
根据其用途可以分为时间状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、地点状语从句、目的状语从句.

  1. 时间状语从句(when, while, as, before, after, since, until/till, as soon as…)

    1. when 的用法
      表示主句和从句动作同时或先后发生, 动词可以是延续性动词也可以是非延续性动词
      I worked for a foreign company when I was in Shanghai.
    2. while 的用法
      往往表示主句和从句中的动作同时发生, 且常用延续性或表示状态的动词.
      They rushed in while we were discussing problems.
    3. as 的用法
      as 引导时间状语从句表示一边…一边…, 随着, 或者正当…
      Helen heared the story as she washed clothes.
    4. before 和 after 的用法
      before 表示在…之前, after 表示在…之后.
      I will always work hard before I enter Peking University.
      She cooked several delicious dishes for me after I got to her home.
    5. until/till 的用法
      意思相同, 可以互换, 但 till 不能用于句首
      1. 主句谓语是延续性动词时. 主句用肯定形式, 表示这个动作或状态一直持续到 until/till 引导的从句的动作发生为止.
        I will wait for you untill/till you come to see me.
      2. 主句谓语是非延续性动词时, 主句用否定形式, 表示主句的动作直到 until 引导的从句动作发生才发生(构成 not…until 结构), 此时不能用 till. (有时不用 not, 而用其它表示否定的词, 如 never, nothing)
        I didn’t go to bed until I finished my homework.
    6. since 的用法
      since 引导的时间状语从句, 一般主句用现在完成时, 从句用一般过去时.
      I have worked in this company since I graduated from Peking University.
    7. as soon as 的用法
      as soon as 引导的时间状语从句, 表示从句的动作一发生, 主句的动作也随之发生. 该从句一般用现在时表示将来时.
      I will tell him the truth as soon as he comes here.
  2. 条件状语从句
    主句为祈使句、一般将来或含有情态动词时, 条件状语从句一般用现在时.

    1. if 引导的条件状语从句
      I will visit the Great Wall if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.
    2. unless 引导的条件状语从句
      We’ll go for an outing tomorrow unless it rains (=if it doesn’t rain).

    注意: 为了强调动作的完成, 从句中也能用完成时.
    You can go out if you have finished your homework

  3. 原因状语从句
    原因状语从句通常用 because, since 或 as 引导. 这三个词所表示的语气由 because 到 as 逐渐递减.

    1. because 的用法
      表示因果关系的语气最强, 用来回答 why 的问题, 所引出的原因往往是听话人所不知道或者感兴趣的, because 引导的原因状语从句往往显得比主句更重要.
      I’m leaving because I am fed up with the lecture.
      My friends admire me because I can speak English as fluently as the native speakers.
    2. since 的用法
      表示已知事实, 不需要强调的原因, 因此经常译成既然…, 通常放在句首. since 引导的从句是次要的, 重点强调主句的内容.
      Since every one is here, let’s get started.
    3. as 的用法
      as 与 since 用法相似, 所引出的理由在说话人看来已经很明显, 或已为听话人所熟悉而不需要用 because 加以强调. as 引导的从句与主句具有同等的重要性.
      She didn’t hear us come in as she was asleep.
    4. now(that) 的用法
      主要用于口语, 表示微弱的原因, 主、从句因果关系不明显, 意为既然.
      Now(that) you have come, you may as well stay.
  4. 目的状语从句

    1. 目的状语从句通常由 so that, in order that 等引导. 从句谓语中常含 may, might, can, could, will, would 等情态动词.
      He must get up early so that he can go to work on time.
    2. 当从句主语与主句主语一致时, 可用 so as to 和 in order to.
      He worked day and night in order that he could succeed.
      = He worked day and night in order to succeed.
  5. 结果状语从句

    1. 由 so…that, such…that 引导
      so + 形容词或副词 + that
      so + 形容词 + a/an + 单数名词 + that
      such + a/an + 形容词 + 名词 + that
      such + 形容词 + 复数名词/不可数名词 + that

      She is such a lovely girl that we love her very much.
      = She is so lovely a girl that we love her very much.

      注意: 当名词前面有 many, much, little, few 修饰时, 用 so 不用 such.
      We have so much time that we can finish the work very well.

    2. so…that 句型的否定形式可用简单句 too…to… 或 not…enough to 代替.
      He is so young that he can’t go to school.
      = He is too young to go to school.
      = He is not old enough to go to school.

  6. 让步状语从句

    1. though/although 的用法
      同义, 一般情况下可互换, 但是 although 语气较重, 大多置于句首. 可与 yet 连用, 不可与 but 连用
      They are generous though they are poor.
      Although he was Japanese, he spent most of his life in China.
    2. even though 与 even if 的用法
      同义, 表示语气更强的让步.
      Even though he is 24 new, he’s still like a little child.
      We’ll make a trip even if/even though the weather is bad.
    3. wh-ever 类引导词的用法
      在英语中 wh-ever 既可引导名词性从句, 还可引导让步状语从句且可换成 no matter + 相应的 wh- 词, 而在引导名词性从句时只能用 wh-ever.
      Whenever I am unhappy, it is my friend who cheers me up.
      = No matter when I am unhappy, it is my friend who cheers me up.
  7. 地点状语从句

    1. 引导地点状语从句的从属连词有 where 和 wherever.
      指具体地点时, 从句可位于主句之前或之后;
      表示抽象含义时, 从句需放在主句前面.
      He lives where the climate is cool.
      Where there is a will, there is a way.
    2. 注意区分 where 引导的状语从句和定语从句.
      You’d better make a mark where you have questions. (状语从句)
      You’d better make a mark at the place where you have questions. (有先行词, 定语从句)

注意:

  1. 不能同时出现在一个句子中的连词:
    1. because (因为) 引导原因状语从句. so (所以) 连接并列句. 不能同时出现在一个句子里, 只能用其一.
      Because he was tired, he couldn’t walk here.
      = He was tired, so he couldn’t walk here.
    2. although/though (虽然) 引导让步状语从句. but (但是) 连接并列句. 不能同时出现在一个句子里, 只能用其一.
      但 although/though 和 yet 可以出现在一个句子里(这里的 yet 不是连词, 而是副词).
  2. when, while, as 的区别
    when, while, as 引导的从句都可使用持续性动词. when 和 as 都可以与非持续性动词连用, 而 while 不能.
    when 可表示瞬间, 也可表示时间段, 与主句所陈述的动作、事情可同时发生, 也可有先后.
    while 常用于连接同时进行的两个持续性动词相伴随而发生的动作.
    as 不指先后, 尤指两个动作或事件同时发生.
    The film has been on when we arrived.
    My mother was cooking while I was doing my homework.
    As I left the house, I forgot the key.

名词性从句

引导名词性从句的连接词
  1. 连接代词: who, whose, whom, what, which. 有词义, 在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语、表语、宾语等
  2. 连接副词: when, where, why, how. 有词义, 在从句中充当句子成分, 作状语.
  3. 连结词: that, whether, if, as if.
    that 无词义, 在从句中不充当句子成分, 有时可省略;
    而 whether, if, as if 虽有词义, 但在从句中不充当句子成分.
主语从句
  1. 主语从句在复合句中作主语.
    Who will go is not important.
  2. 用 it 作为形式主语, 主语从句放在句末,
    但 what 引导的主句从句表示…的东西时, 不用 it 做形式主语,
    whatever, whichever, whoever 一般也不用 it 做形式主语.
    It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not.
    What he needs is more experience.
  3. that 引导主语从句时不能省略
    That he suddenly fell ill made us surprised.
表语从句

在句中做表语的从句称为表语从句, 共分三类常考点:

  1. 若主句的主语是 advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement 等名词时, 则表语从句的谓语应用虚拟语气, 即 should + 动词原形的形式.
    His suggestion is that we (should) change our course.
  2. 主语为 reason 时, 表语从句的连接词要用 that, 而不用 why 或 because.
    The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drunk.
  3. because, why, as if/as though, as, like 等连接词也可以连接表语从句.
    He has lung cancer. That is because he has been smoking too much.

(应根据句子结构判断是表语从句还是结果状语从句)

宾语从句

在主从复合句起宾语作用
宾语从句分为三类: 动词的宾语从句、介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句.
根据不同的作用, 宾语从句的连结词通常分为以下几类:

  1. that: 本身无意义, 只起连接作用, 口语中可以省略.
    He said (that) Kate was good at swimming.
  2. what, which, who, whose, whom 等连接词, 在从句中作一定的成分, 如主语、宾语、表语、定语.
    I don’t know what they are going to do. (这里的 what 作宾语)
    He asked me whose book it was. (这里的 whose 作定语)
  3. when, where, why, how 等连接副词, 在从句中充当状语.
    Could you tell me where you live? (地点状语)
    Do you know how they found the place? (方式状语)
  4. If, whether 意为是否, 不作句子成分, 但不能省略. (这里和条件状语的区分关键是宾语从句的事情已经做了, 而条件状语的事情还没做)
    He asked me if Miss Zhao was a teacher.

同位语从句

区分同位语从句和定语从句: 同位语能替换宾语, 而定语不能

特殊句式

虚拟语气

所有跟要求有关的动词后面宾语都用虚拟语气

  1. if 引导的虚拟语气: if 条件句 + 结果句
    对现在虚拟: If were/did (过去式), would + 动词原形
    对过去虚拟: If had done (过去完成) , would have done
    对将来虚拟: If would do (过去将来时) , would do
  2. 情态动词(should, ought to, need; 过去事实推测: can’t/couldn’t, must) + have …
    as if/as though 表虚拟(描述与事实不符时)/表陈述(描述与事实相符时)
虚拟条件句
  1. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合语句中, 主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气

    1. 与现在事实相反
      从句: 动词过去式(be + were), 主句: would/should/could/might + 动词原形
      If my brother were here, everything would be all right.
    2. 与过去事实相反
      从句: had + 过去分词, 主句: would/should/could/might + have + 过去分词
      If you had taken my device, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed in the exam.
    3. 与将来事实相反
      从句: 动词过去式, should + 动词原形, were to + 动词原形, 主句: would/should/could/might + 动词原形
      If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should(would, could, might) go to see my grandma.
      If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out.
    4. 错综时间
      有时条件从句中动词和主语中的动作发生时间不一致, 这时动词形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整
      If you had listened to doctor, you would be all right now. (从句动作指过去, 主句动作指现在)

    注意: 主句中 should 只用于第一人称(但在美语中 should 常被 would 代替); 从句中 should 可用于各种人称.

  2. 虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式

    1. 省略连词 if
      在书面中, 如果虚拟条件从句中有 were, had 或 should, 可以把 if 省略, 把这几个词放到主语之前, 构成主谓倒装.
      Should he come (If he should come), tell him to ring me up.
      Were I you (If I were you), I would not do it.
    2. 用介词短语代替条件状语从句
      有时假设的情况并不用条件从句表示出来, 而是通过介词短语来表示.
      Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things.
      But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help), I couldn’t have done it.
      假设的情况有时可以通过上下文或其他方式表达出来.
      I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone with them.
      (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them).
      I would have finished the work, but I have been ill.
      (If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.)
    3. 省去条件状语从句
      表示虚拟从句的主句或从句有时可以省略, 但其含义仍可以推知.
      1. 省去条件从句
        (If you had wanted to,) You could have washed your clothes yourself.
      2. 省去主句(常用于表示愿望)
        If my grandma were with me!
        If only she had not left.
虚拟语气的其他用法
  1. 虚拟语气在主语从句的用法
    在 It is important(strange, natural, necessary)/suggested/desired/proposed…that… 句型中, that 所引导的主语从句的谓语动词常用 should + 动词原形的结构.
    It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules.
  2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句的用法
    1. 在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中表示与现在或过去的事实相反或对将来的主观愿望, 从句通常省略连词 that
      1. 表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从句动词用过去式或过去进行时(be + were)
        I wish I knew the answer to the question.
      2. 表示对过去情况的虚拟: 从句动词常用 had+过去分词.
        I wish(wished) I hadn’t spent so much money.
      3. 表示对将来的主观愿望: 谓语动词为 would+动词原形.
        此时要注意, 主句主语与从句主语不能相同, 因为主句主语所期望的从句动作能否实现取决于从句主语的态度和意愿(非动物名称除外).
        I wish it would stop.
        I wish you would come soon.
    2. 在 suggest, demand, order, propose, insist, command, request, desire 等动词后面的宾语从句中, 谓语动词用 should + 动词原形.
      I demand that he (should) answer me immediately.
      • 注意: 当 suggest 表示暗示, 表明之意, insist 表示坚持认为之意时, 其后宾语从句不适用虚拟语气形式, 应使用陈述语气形式.
        The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.
        The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.
    3. 在 would rather 后的宾语从句中, 也用虚拟语气, 其谓语为动词过去式(表示现在或将来动作)或过去完成时(表示过去动作)
      I would rather she came tomorrow.
      He would rather I had done the work for him.
  3. 虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法
    1. 在带有 even if/even though 引导的让步状语从句的主从复合句中, 主句和从句都用虚拟语气, 动词形式与含有非真实条件的虚拟语气相同.
      Even if he had been ill, he would have gone to his office.
    2. 由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时. 从句谓语形式为动词的过去式(be + were)或 had + 过去分词.
      He treated me as if I were a stranger.
      She talked about the film as if she had really seen it.
    3. 在 in order to 或 so that 引导的目的状语从句中, 谓语动词多用 could 或 might (有时也用 should) + 动词原形.
      Mr. Green spoke slowly so that His students could(might) hear clearly.
  4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法
    在 it is time (that)… 句型中, 定语从句的谓语常用虚拟语气表示将来时, 动词原形一般换成过去式, 意思是该做某事的时候了.
    It’s (high) time we did our homework.
  5. 虚拟语气在简单句中的用法
    1. 情态动词过去式用于现在时态, 表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌, 或委婉的语气, 常见于日常会话中.
      I would be better for you not to stay up too late.
    2. 在一些习惯表达中.
      I would rather not tell you.
    3. 用 may + 动词原形, 表示祝愿, 此时 may 必须置于句首(多用于正式文体中).
      May you be happy!
      May good luck be yours!

强调句

强调句结构: (that/who 不能省略)

  1. 强调名词 It is/was + 强调部分 + that/who + 剩余部分
  2. 强调动词: 人称代词 + do/did + 强调部分 + that 剩余部分

祈使句

动词在句首=祈使句

复合谓语

复合谓语的形式:

  1. 情态动词 + 动词原形
  2. 助动词 + 实意动词或动词短语
  3. 助动词 + 动名词/过去分词
  4. 系动词 + 表语(主系表可看作主谓)

独立主格

独立主格是没有谓语的特殊句子, 后面需要跟上主句, 不能独立存在.
比如: Her eyes moist and red
there be 开头的句子也是独立主格

并列句

定义: 使用并列连词连接起来的两个以上的句子
结构: 简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句
常见的并列连词

  1. 表示转折、并列、递进关系的并列连词
    and, both…, and…, as well as, not only…but also…, neither…nor…
    My father bought me a present and I like it very much
    He is not only a good basketball player but also can play the plano very skillfully.
  2. 表示转折、对比关系的并列连词
    but, yet, while
    Lucy likes playing the plano while Lily likes playing basketball.
  3. 表示选择关系的并列连词
    either…or… 连接主语时, 动词和靠近它的主语在人称、数上保持一致, 即就近原则. or 或者, 还可以表示否则
    Either you or your mother has been invited.
    Study hard, or you will fail the exam.
  4. 表示因果关系的并列连词
    so 后面接结果, for 经常用于引出推断性的原因, 不能位于句首.
    Kate was ill, so she didn’t go to school.
    It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.

注意:

  1. and 和 for 用于否定句中的用法
    1. 当列举成分是主语且在否定词之前时, 用 and 连接;
      当列举成分在否定词之后, 用 or 构成全否定(指 or 连接的两个都否定)
      Lucy and Lily can’t speak Chinese.
      I can’t sing or dance.
    2. 在否定句中, 如果所连接的两部分都有否定词. 那么用 and, 不用 or
      There is no water and no air on the moon.
    3. 在否定句中, without 之后若有列举成分, 则用 and 连接, 构成完全否定;
      在肯定句中, without 之后的列举成分要有 or 连接才能构成完全否定.
      Man can’t live without air and water.
      = Man will die without air or water.
  2. 当连结词 and 连接的并列句前半部分是祈使句, 后半部分是一般将来时的陈述句时, 前半部分相当于(指可转换成) if 引导的条件状语从句.
    这种句型还可以用 or 连接, 但转换成的 if 引导的条件状语从句需是否定形式
    Think it over, and you will find the answer.
    = If you think it over, you will find the answer.
    Hurry up, or you will be late.
    = If you don’t hurry up, you will be late.

词语

单词前后缀

  1. prefix
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    anti- : "opposite" antisocial
    auto- : "by oneself or itself" autobiography
    bi- : "two" bicycle
    bio- : "biological" biology
    co- : "together" cooperate
    counter- : "against" counteraccack
    de- : "negative, remove" defrost
    dis- : "negative, opposite" dishonest
    en- : "make it in...state" enlarge
    il- : "not, used before the letter 'l'" illegal
    im- : "not, used before the letter 'm', 'b', 'p'" impossible
    in- : "not" inactive
    ir- : "not, used before the letter 'r'" irregular
    inter- : "between" international
    mid- : "middle" midday
    mini- : "small" miniskirt
    mis- : "wrong" misunderstand
    non- : "not" nonstop
    post- : "after" postwar
    pre- : "before" prewar
    re- : "again" rewrite
    sub- : "below" subway
    super- : "great" superhero
    tele- : "large distance" telescope
    trans- : "across" transpacific
    tri- : "three" triangle
    un- : "not" unimportant
    under- : "beneath", "not enough" underestimate
  2. suffix
    1. 名词后缀
      1
      2
      3
      4
      5
      6
      7
      8
      9
      10
      11
      12
      13
      -age
      -ance, -ence
      -ancy, -ency
      -er, -or
      -hood childhood
      -ion, -tion, -ation
      -ian
      -ist
      -ment
      -ness
      -ology biology, psychology
      -ship friendship, membership
      -ty, -ity
    2. 动词后缀
      1
      2
      3
      -en                  fasten. shorten
      -fy, -ify satisfy, simplify
      -ize, -ise modernize
    3. 形容词后缀
      1
      2
      3
      4
      5
      6
      7
      8
      9
      10
      11
      -able, -ible, -ble
      -al environmental
      -ful
      -ic, -ical atomic, economical
      -ish bluish
      -ive
      -less
      -ly
      -ous
      -some troublesome
      -y
    4. 副词后缀
      1
      2
      3
      -ly
      -ward(s) backward(s), afterward(s)
      -wise clockwise

代词

用作形式主语或宾语, 或起从句连接作用

人称/物主代词, 反身代词, 指示代词(单this/that, 复these/those)
不定代词(some-, -thing, any-, all, every-, none, no-, neither…), 相互代词, 疑问代词, 关系代词(用于从句)

连词

whereas 然而; 鉴于
wh-ever 任何…

冠词

(修饰主语, 宾语)

不定冠词 the, 定冠词 a/an

介词

放在宾语/主语前, 视主语/谓语动词而定

TODO: 方位介词

用 for 还是 to 还是 of?
后接动作对象时, to 和 for 差不多
表示事物性质特点或原因或目标或一段时间用 for
形容人性格或品质用 of

常见介词短语(介词+名词, 介词后跟宾语)

be relevant to

change in // 强调改变的内容
change of // 强调改变本身
change to/into // 强调改变后的状态

confident of

have effect on = affect

be bound to 一定要

impact on
carry out
mastery over

cross out 删去

matter to 对…很重要
so as to 以便于
be up to 取决于

an integral part of …不可或缺的一部分
multitude of 众多的

through thick and thin 风雨同舟

动词

助动词

助动词: do, have, be, 情态动词
助动词后跟动词原形组成复合谓语
助动词作用: 构成时态、语态, 表达情感

情态动词

情态动词属于助动词
情态动词: can, may, must, need, ought to, dare, shall, will, have to
情态动词没有非谓语动词形式

使役动词

使役动词: have, make, let, help, use
使役动词后跟动词原形组成复合谓语
have作使役动词不能直接跟动词

系动词(也称连系动词)

系动词: be, ramain appear, keep, 感官动词(look, sound, feel, smell, taste, seem, …), 趋势动词(get, go, become, turn, …)
系动词的否定形式为前面加don’t

及物和不及物

不及物动词后不能直接跟名词

await (vt.) = wait (vi.) for

动词短语

动词短语形式为: 动词 + 介词/副词

take into

set apart // set us apart as beings

compare to // point out resemblances between objects regarded as essentially of a different order
compare with // point out different between objects regarded as essentially of the sane order

give up 的两种形式
give up sth. 名词
give it up 代词

非谓语动词

动词不定式

(作主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语和状语)

构成: to + 动词原形, to 是不定式的符号, 无意义, 有时可省略.
但是不定式具有动词的特点, 可以有自己的宾语和状语, 但没有三单和复数形式.

句法功能:

  1. 作主语:
    To learn English is not easy for me.
    不定式作主语时, 常用 it 作为形式主语, 而把真正的不定式放后面.
    其结构为: It + be + adj. (+for/of sb.) + 动词不定式
    It is not easy for me to learn English.
    It is very kind of you to tell me the truth.
  2. 作表语:
    My work is to clean the room everyday.
  3. 作宾语:
    What sport does he like to play? He likes to play football.
    不定式只能作某些动词的宾语, 不能作介词的宾语(but, expect 除外).
    这些动词常常表示命令、打算或希望. 如: would like, want, wish, hope, decide, plan, expect 等.
    Would you like to see a film this evening?
    如果动词为 find 或者 think 后跟不定式作宾语时, 常用 it 作形式宾语, 而将真正的宾语放在后面.
    I find it hard to write English articles.
    注意: 不定式常和疑问句 what, which, when, where, how 连用作宾语, 相当于一个宾语从句.
    The kid doesn’t know how to do it himself. (= how he should do it himself.)
  4. 作宾语补足语:
    不定式作宾补时与宾语有逻辑上的主动关系.
    Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.
    谓语 tell, ask, want, allow, get, would like, encourage 等后面常跟不定式作宾语补足语.
    注意: 还有一些使役动词和感官动词也用不定式作宾补. 这时要省略 to. 这些动词有:
    这些动词有: 一感(feel), 二听(hear, listen to), 三让(let, make, have), 四看(look at, see, watch, notice), 但是这些动词变被动语态时, 作动词的不定式必须加上 to
    The boss made them work the whole night.
    They were made to work the whole night by the boss.
  5. 作定语:
    不定式作定语应放在名词之后(即只能作后置定语), 它与名词之间有逻辑上的被动关系.
    We don’t have enough food to eat.
    如果是不及物动词, 且与所修饰的词之间有被动的关系, 需要在不定式后面加上适当的介词.
    There is nothing to worry about.
    Do you have any ink to write with?
    It is a very good school to study in.
  6. 作状语:
    1. 作目的状语
      To save the time, we took the plane to Beijing.
      注意: 如果强调此目的, 可在不定式前加 in order/so as. 但 so as to 不能用于句首.
      I will take notes in order not to/so as not to forget these important points.
    2. 作结果状语
      往往表示出乎意料的结果, 常与 only 连用
      He hurried to the station only to find that the train had left.
    3. 在某些形容词后面常表示喜怒哀乐的原因.
      We are pround to be the citizens of China.
    4. 在带有 enough 或 too 的句子里作状语
      He is old enough to go to school.
      We found the room too small to hold so many people.
动名词

(作主语、宾语、表语、定语)
构成: 动词原形+ing, 但是有不规则形式.
用法:

  1. 作主语:
    谓语动词用单数.
    Eating too much is bad for your health.
  2. 作宾语:
    表示一般的习惯或抽象行为或经常性的动作.
    1. 作动词宾语
      I like playing basketball very much.
    2. 作介词宾语
      英语中有一些动词(短语)后面常跟动名词作宾语. 常用的有 finish, enjoy, mind, miss, be worth, practice,
      have trouble/problems/difficulty (in), spend some time/money (in), feel like, be/get used to.
      Stamps are used for sending letters.
分词

(作表语、补语、定语、状语)
构成: 现在分词由动词+ing构成; 过去分词由动词+ed构成, 但是有不规则形式.
现在分词有主动、进行之意; 过去分词有被动、完成之意.
句法功能:

  1. 作定语:
    现在分词作定语修饰其逻辑主语;
    过去分词作定语修饰其逻辑宾语.
    Do you know the girl standing under the tree?
    Please hand in your written exercises.
  2. 作状语:
    现在分词作状语其逻辑主语为句子的主语.
    The student went out of the classroom, talking and laughing.
    当主句和从句主语不一致且要用分词作状语时, 要在分词前面加上动作的逻辑主语
    It being a fine day, we decided to go swimming in the lake.
  3. 作表语:
    现在分词表示主语的性质、特征;
    过去分词表示某种状态.
    The book is so interesting that I will read it again.
    The boy is too frightened to move.
  4. 作补语:
    现在分词作补语, 被补足的宾语或主语是它的逻辑主语
    过去分词作补语, 被补足的宾语或主语是它的逻辑宾语(因为过去分词有被动含义所以是逻辑宾语)
    Don’t keep us waiting for a long time.
    I heard him singing in the classroom.
    He’ll have his hair cut after school.
易混淆点
  1. 动词不定式复合结构用 of 或 for 的区别
    在 kind, good, nice, clever 等表示人的品质、特征的形容词后, 不用 for 而用 of;
    在表示事物性质特点的形容词后用 for.
    It’s very clever of you to do it like this.
    It’s very difficult for me to finish the task in an hour.
  2. 不定式符号 to 和介词 to 的区别
    to 既可以是不定式的符号, 也可以是介词, 后面跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语.
    常用的含有介词 to 的短语:
    make a contribution to
    devote…to…
    prefer…to…
    get/be used/accustomed to…
    apply to
  3. 动词不定式作宾补和现在分词作宾补的区别
    see, watch, hear, feel 等感官动词
    后接省略 to 的不定式作宾补时, 表示动作的全过程已经结束;
    后接现在分词作宾补, 表示动作正在进行.
    I saw him cross the street.
    I saw him crossing the street
  4. 某些动词后面接不定式和动名词有区别
    stop, forget, remember, try, regret, mean, go on, can’t help
  5. need, require, want 后面跟不定式和动名词作宾语的区别
    后面接动名词主动式表示被动含义, 也可跟不定式的被动式.
    The window needs cleaning.
    The window needs to be cleaned.
用动词不定式还是动名词

TODO: 整理特点

工作内容用不定式
兴趣爱好用动名词

伴随动作用动名词
如 We walked as fast as we could, hoping to catch the 9:30 train

like to do 想去做某事
like doing 习惯于
go on/continue to do 停下手上的活做其他的事请
go on/continue doing 一直在做没有停止
remember/forget to do 记得/忘记将要去做
remember/forget doing 记得/忘记做过
try to do 尽力,努力
try doing 尝试
mean to do 打算去做
mean doing 意味着
regret to do 抱歉(为将要发生的事请)
regret doing 抱歉(已经发生的事请)
begin/start to do 下意识的
begin/start doing 自然发生的

need doing=need to be do: need 为情态动词; need to do: need 为实意

hear sb doing 和 hear sb do: 前者进行时, 后置强调结果

be worthy of being done = worthwhile to do

first 和 last 用不定式
the first to do
the last to do

no good/use 用动名词

please/happy/enough 用不定式

cannot but 用动名词

let alone 用动名词

spend两种形式
spend on sth.
spend in doing

plan 用不定式

permit 用动名词

miss 用动名词

practice 用动名词

have no … but 用动名词

worth 用动名词

spend (in) doing

it takes sb. some time to do sth.

动词形态

时态
Present Past (Predicate/Copule must be v2) Future (+will after Subject) Past Future
Simple Subject + Verb(v1)-s/es Subject + Verb(v2) Subject + will/shall + Verb(v1) Subject + would + Verb(v1)
Continuous Subject + is/am/are + Verb(+ing) Subject + was/were + Verb(+ing) Subject + will/shall + be + Verb(+ing) Subject + would/should + be + Verb(v1)
Perfect Subject + has/have + Verb(v3) Subject + had + Verb(v3) Subject + will + have + Verb(v3) Subject + would/should + have + Verb(v3)
Perfect Continuous Subject + has/have + been + Verb(+ing) Subject + had + been + Verb(+ing) Subject + will + have + been + Verb(+ing) Subject + would + have + been + Verb(+ing)

分清句子时态: 过去的过去用过去完成时; 见到一段时间用完成时

时态呼应

主句现在时态, 从句该用什么时态用什么
主句过去时态, 分情况讨论:

  1. 从句动作若在主句动作发生之前, 从句用过去完成时态; 若从句有表示具体时间的状语, 从句依然用一般过去时
  2. 从句的动作与主句动作同时发生, 用一般过去时或过去完成时.
  3. 从句动作发生在主句动作之后, 从句用过去将来时
  4. 客观真理, 自然现象, 格言谚语, 从句用一般现在时
被动

被动是针对于主语而言的, 无生命的一般为被动

  1. 被动语态
    英语中动词的语态有两种: 主动语态和被动语态. 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者, 被动语态表示宾语是动作的执行者, 主语是动作的承受者.
    在被动语态的句子中, 动作的执行者一般由介词 by 引起的短语来表示.
    We often help them. (主动)
    They are often helped by us. (被动)
    1. 被动语态各时态的形式由助动词 be 的各时态形式加(及物)动词的过去分词构成.

    2. 被动语态八种时态的用法:
      被动语态常用的八种时态的基本用法和主动语态各时态的基本用法相同, 只是句中的主语不是动作的执行者, 而是动作的承受者.

    3. 一般使用被动语态的情况

      1. 当不知道动作执行者是谁或没有必要提到动作执行者.
        Paper was first made in China.
      2. 当强调或突出动作承受者的作用时.
        The new machine was invented by a 20-year-old young worker.
    4. 被动语态的各种时态形式:
      一般现在时 am/is/are done
      一般过去时 was/were done
      一般将来时 will/shall be done

      现在进行时 am/is/are being done
      过去进行时 was/were being done
      将来进行时 will/shall be being done

      现在完成时 have/has been done
      过去完成时 had been done
      将来完成时 will/shall have been done

      现在完成进行时 have/has been being done
      过去完成进行时 had been being done
      将来完成进行时 will/shall have been being done

  2. 被动语态注意的问题
    1. 不及物动词、表状态动词一般用主动语态(即不能作被动)
      come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur, belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed
    2. 下列动词的主动形态表被动含义
      1. lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride, write (且常与 well, easily, badly 等副词连用)
        Glass breaks easily.
        The car rides smoothly.
        The case locks easily.
        The book sells well.
      2. 系动词(look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, turn, keep, …):
        The steel feels cold.
        I don’t want to sound like anyone else, but I’ve had a hard life.
      3. 表示开始、结束、运动的动词: begin, finish, start, open, move 等
        The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day.
      4. 表示事物(或人)客观上"需要": want, need, require 作谓语
        用动名词作宾语一般主动形式表示被动含义. (等价于动词不定式的被动形式)
        若动名词是不及物动词, 后面还需跟上相应的介词.
      5. 某些作表语的形容词(easy, difficult, light, heavy, fit, good, safe, comfortable, dangerous, pleasant, …)后面(作状语)的动词不定式主动表被动
        如 She is easy to approach
      6. have sb. do sth. 和 have sb./sth. doing 和 have sth. done 的区别
        1. have sb. do sth.
          让某人做某事, have 可用 let, make 代替. 不定式往往表示一次性的动作, 且强调动作已经完成或尚未发生.
          The police had the boy stand with back to his father.
        2. have sb./sth. doing
          让某人或某物一直做某事, have 可用 keep 代替, 现在分词往往具有持续、进行、主动的含义.
          The teacher had the students reading aloud the text for a quarter.
          The two men had their lights burning all night long.
        3. have sth. done
          有两层含义:
          1. 托某人做(=ask sb. to do sth.)
            The driver had hist car washed once a week.
          2. 遭受某人做. 过去分词的动作由他人完成, 被动含义且强调动作已完成.
            He had his wallet stolen when he was shopping.

考试特点

考试特点: 七大题型(主观5个+客观2个)

写作套路

写作套路: 三段式写作(观点, 理由说明, 结论)

2-3 min 审题
想出框架结构
中文稿子 5-7 min
十几分钟翻译成英文

杂项

  • pursue sth.=in pursuit of sth.
  • be + adj. = be + of + n.
    如 He is an able man = He is a man of ability
  • hardly Verb(v3) when
    no sooner Verb(v2) than
Author

Ndoskrnl

Posted on

2021-01-13

Updated on

2021-12-05

Licensed under