英语的语法是一系列的规则, 只要理清和遵循这些规则, 就能写出正确的句子


连词 Conjunction

连词属于虚词, 无实义.

  • 并列连词: and, or, but, for, not only…but also, neither…nor.
  • 从属连词: that, if, whether, when, although, because, so that

介词 Preposition

Prepositions are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations or mark various semantic roles.

A preposition typically combines with a noun phrases, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. A preposition establishes a grammical/sematic relationship that links its complement to another word or phrase in the context.

  1. 介词分类
    spatial: towards, in, on, under, against, near.
    temporal: after, during.
    sematic roles: of, for, without, than, via, per.


    1. 简单介词 Simple preposition 是由一个单词组成的介词. 例如 on, above, among.
    2. 复合介词 Compound preposition 是由两个词合成的介词. 例如 into, outside, within, throughout.
    3. 二重介词 Double preposition 是有两个介词构成的词组. 例如 from under, from behind, until after.
    4. 短语介词 Phrasal preposition 是由一或多个其他此类与一或两个介词构成的词组. 其作用相当于一个介词. 如 according to, apart from, due to, because of, by means of, for the purpose of, in addition to, in comparison with, in front of, instead of, with reference to, with regard to.
    5. 分词介词 Participle preposition 是有某些现在分词转换成的介词. 如 considering, including, regarding, concerning, given.
      given 与后边的并词构成短语在句中作条件状语.
      Given good health, I hope to finish the work this year.
  2. 介词在动词、名词和形容词后

    1. 与某些动词搭配: consist of, belong to, rely on/upon, add…to…, compare…with, differ from, insist on, persist in, depend on/upon.
    2. 与某些名词搭配: advantage over, search for, arrival at, similarity to, confidence in, struggle against, contribution to, satisfaction with, key to.
    3. 与某些形容词搭配: afraid of, responsible for, familiar with, fond of (喜欢), full of, faithful to, similar to, different from, free from.
  3. 介词与宾语的搭配

    1. 介词+名词
      along the road, as an engineer, before lunch, in front of the house, according to the passage, due to the failure.
    2. 介词+代词
      besides us, for them, except him, instead of her, on behalf of us all.
    3. 介词+数词
      on 21st, May; at six; plus 16; from 10 to 20.
    4. 介词+动名词
      without paying any taxes, upon hearing the news, instead of staying at home.
    5. 介词+疑问代词/疑问副词 引出的从句或不定式短语.
      about how he worked at the company.
      from what she has said.
      on how to improve the efficiency.
  4. 介词短语的用法
    介词短语在句中主要担任定语和状语, 也可作表语和补足语.

    1. 定语
      You must know the meaning of every word you learn.
      Most of the products on display are new ones.
    2. 状语
      Ships are built for sea transport. (修饰谓语 are built)
      Soon flying in the air became a fact. (修饰动名词 flying)
      The book is very popular among young people. (修饰形容词 popular)
      I haven’t been away from home. (修饰副词 away)
      In spite of his shortcomings, he is a responsible man. (修饰整句)
    3. 表语
      These goods are of perfect quality.
      Mary seems in high spirits today.
      His story sounds like science fiction.
      The agreement will remain in force for another five years.
  5. 宾/主语补语
    Once a cold kept her in bed for three days (宾语补语)
    When she entered the room she found everything in good order. (宾语补语)
    Pure iron is considered of little use. (主语补语)
    The price you offered is found on the high side. (主语补足语)

  6. 介词副词
    介词副词是小品词 (particle), 它在形式上语介词相同, 但是句法功能不同. 它们在句中有时是介词, 有时是副词, 要注意区分.
    A truck drove past the gold mine. (介词)
    A truck drove past (副词)
    The moon circles round the earch. (介词)
    She will come round to see me. (副词)
    Our boat sailed up the river. (介词)
    The train stopped to pick up passenger. (副词)

副词 Adverb

not, even, where, how, thus

代词 Pronoun

疑问代词: who[m], whose, which, what
关系代词: who[m], whose, which, that, as
不定代词: any, some, nothing, none

感叹词 Interjection



  1. 原级 (positive degree) 即形容词和副词原形.
    比较级 (comparative degree) 和最高级 (superlative degree) 是在形容词和副词的原级基础上构成.
    对于单音节和少数双音节形容词和副词, 其变化规则为:
    比较级: 原级+er
    最高级: 原级+est
    对于多音节和多数双音节的形容词和副词, 其变化规则为:
    比较级: more+原级
    最高级: most+原级
    原级 比较级 最高级
    good, well better best
    bad, badly, ill (坏) worse worst
    many, much more most
    little less least
    far farther (距离), further (进一步) farthest, furthest
    old older, elder (兄弟姐妹) oldest, eldest
  2. 用法
    1. 原级

      1. 表示双方程度相等用 as 原级 as.
        He is as busy as before.
      2. 表示双方程度不相等用 not so/as 原级 as.
        It is not so/as cold today as yesterday.
        He didn’t make as much progress as he had expected.
        She did’nt sing so well last night as she usually does.
    2. 比较级

      1. 两事物比较, 用 ‘比较级 than’.
        She has better memories than I.
        She arrived earlier than the others.
      2. 比较级可用 much, far, a lot, a great deal, a little, a bit 等修饰.
        The new method is much more efficient than the old one.
        We have had {a lot,great deal} more rainfall this year than we had last year.
      3. 用 ‘the 比较级, the 比较级’ 结构表示 '越…, 越…".
        In fact, the busier he is, the happier he feels.
        The soon you leave there, the better.
    3. 最高级
      三个或三个以上事物比较用 ‘the 最高级’ 结构.
      Autumn is the best season in Beijing.

      如果最高级前有物主代词, 则不需要定冠词 the.
      Please send us the goods at your earliest convenience.
      如果不与他者相比, 最高级也可不加定冠词 the.
      Vegetables are best when they are fresh.
      有时最高级表示 “非常”、“很” 的以上, 可加不定冠词 a/an 或不加冠词.
      This film is most interesting.
      This is a most touching story.




主语 宾语 表语 Predicative 定语 状语 主/宾语补语 (complement)
  • [状语][前置定语]主语[后置定语] [状语]谓语[状语] [前置定语]宾语[后置定语][宾语补语][状语]
  • [前置定语]主语[后置定语] 系动词 表语[主语补语]


  1. 主语
    数词做主语: Three plus four equals seven.

  2. 表语
    介词短语作表语: The story of my life may be of help to others
    不定式短语作表语: His plan is to seek work in the city. 其中 work 是 seek 的宾语, in the city 是 seek 的状语.

  3. 宾语
    动名词短语作宾语: Do you mind opening the window?

  4. 定语 (Attribute): 广义的形容词. 限定主语或宾语的范围. 修饰名词性的单词、短语、从句. 单词作定语时通常放在修饰名词前 (前置定语); 短语和从句作定语时通常放在所修饰名词后 (后置定语).
    名词作定语: They are woman workers.
    所有格名词作定语: Tom’s father didn’t write home until yesterday.
    形容词作定语: Equal pay for equal work shoud be introduced. 其中 for equal work 是 pay 的后置定语.
    代词、数词和介词短语作定语: This is her first trip to Europe.

  5. 状语: 广义的副词. 修饰动词、形容词、副词. 表示地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随情况等.
    副词作状语: These products are selling quickly. 这里 are 是助动词和 selling 组成复合谓语.
    名词作状语: He is in keen deep snow.
    介词短语作状语: The best fish swim near the bottom.

    比较状语从句 as…as:
    It is just as foolish to say that one should never eat meat and potatoes together as it is to say that one should never eat bread or drink milk. 这里 say 后面的都是同位语从句.
    让步状语从句 as 引出:
    The ants, hard-working as they are, have their times for play. hard-working 为表语成分, 放在从句句首构成倒装.

  6. 宾语补语和主语: 有些及物动词作谓语, 除了要有宾语, 还需要宾语补语才能使句子意义完整. 宾语和宾语补语一起构成复合宾语. 如果是被动态语句, 宾语是实际主语, 宾语补语变为实际主语补语.
    分辨: 修饰主语/宾语的不是表示限定作用的定语, 那么就是补语.
    名词短语作宾语补语: They elected me caption of the team.
    形容词短语作宾语补语: He made me ashamed of myself. 形容词短语: 形容词+补语(介词短语, 不定式[短语).
    介词短语作宾语补语: We found everything there in good order.
    不定式短语作宾语补语: I should advise you not to miss the chance.
    分词短语作宾语补语: I could feel my heart beating fast.

    不定式短语作主语补语: The price is expected to rise the near future.
    形容词作主语补语: Some goods are left unsold.
    名词短语作主语补语: She was elected director of public relations.


  1. (SV) 主语 谓语(不及物动词)
    e.g. He cried.
  2. (SVC) 主语 系动词 表语 [主语补语]
    e.g. The dinner smells good.
    e.g. This is an English-Chinese dictionary.
  3. (SVO) 主语 谓语 宾语
    e.g. He enjoys reading
  4. (SVOO) 主语 谓语 间接宾语(通常指人) 直接宾语(通常指物)
    e.g. He brought you a dictionary.
  5. (SVOC) 主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补语
    宾语与宾语补语构成复合宾语, 存在意义上的主谓关系.
    e.g. I often find him at work.
    e.g. They painted the door green.



  • 疑问句 Interrogative sentence
    有四类: 一般, 特殊, 选择, 反意
    • 一般疑问句 General question: 用 yes/no 来回答. 句中助动词 (包括情态动词) 要放在主语前, 形成到装. 特别情况下, 如表示猜测、惊异、怀疑时, 可以自然语序. 如:
      You think the boy is impossible?
    • 特殊疑问句 Special question: 就句中具体内容提出问题. 常用疑问词有 who[m], whose, which, what, where, when, why, how 等. 如:
      Who are responsible for the company’s advertising?
      What does macaroni look like?
    • 选择疑问句 Alternative question: 提供两种或两种以上情况, 问对方选择哪一种. 通常有两个一般疑问句加 or 构成, 后一句常用省略结构. 如:
      Does your sister work in the wholesale department or in the retail store?
      Is the action necessary or unnecessary?
    • 反意疑问句 Disjunctive question: 附在陈述句后, 对陈述句叙述的事实提出相反疑问. 通常表示说话怀疑或没有把我, 要求 yes/no 回答. 但有时也用于加强语气, 并不要求回答.
      通常结构: {do,have,be,情态动词} + 主语; 若陈述句为否定结构, 反意疑问句用肯定结构.
      She doesn’t often wash her hair, does she?
      Tom washed his car yesterday, didn’t he?
      Everything is arranged in a good order, isn’t it?
  • 祈使句 Imperative sentence
    祈使句的主语 (听话者, 即 you) 通常被省略. 否定结构为在肯定结构前加 do not.
    用 let 引起的是第一人称祈使句, let us 表示说话者和听话者都包括在内; let me 则只指说话者一方.
    Let’s start work at once.
  • 感叹句 Exclamatory sentence
    由 how, what 感叹词加被强调部分及陈述句其他部分组成. 如:
    How hard he works!
    How lucky I am to be invited to the party!
    What an interesting role she played!
    What a pity it is to lose the game again!


定语从句 Attributive Clause

被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词, 定语从句必须放在先行词后面
something 为先行词, 定语从句不能用 which

定语从句三要素: 先行词、关系词、关系词在从句中充当的成分.

  1. 关系代词 that, who/whom, which, whose 引导的定语从句
    先行词在从句中作主语时不可省略, 作宾语时可省略.

    1. 先行词是人, 用 who/whom, that
      The man {who,that} is standing there is my English teacher. (先行词在从句作主语, 不可省略)
      The man [{whom,that}] I am talking to is from the US. (先行词在从句中作宾语, 可省略)
    2. 先行词是物, 用 which, that
      The book {which,that} is on my desk is the best saller of 2018. (先行词在从句作主语, 不可省略)
      The book [{which/that}] I am reading is the best seller of 2018. (先行词在从句中作宾语, 可省略)
    3. 从句是人或物具备的特质, 用 whose (在从句中作定语)
      The man whose hair is brown is the chairman of the meeting.
      I am looking for the book whose cover is red.
    4. that 与 which 的比较
      that 不可作介词的宾语, 这种时候只能用 “prep. which”.
      只用 that 不用 which 的情况
      1. 先行词为不定代词 (some-, -thing, any-, all, every-, none, no-, little, few, much, neither…)
        Is there anything [that] I can do for you?
        That’s all [that] I know.
      2. 唯一 (the only, the one)
      3. 恰好 (the {very,right} that)
      4. 人和物 (先行词既有人又有物)
        They talk about | the thing and people that were unforgetable |.
      5. 先行词为序数词或形容词最高级
        The first thing [that] we should do is work out a plan.
        This is one of the most exciting foolball games [that] I have ever seen.
  2. 关系副词 when, where, why 引导的定语从句 (在从句中作状语)

    1. 先行词是事件, 用 when.
      I still remember the day when we had the first class in this hall.
    2. 先行词是地点, 用 where.
      I still remember the city where we visited ten years ago.
    3. 先行词为原因, 用 why.
      I don’t know the reason why you are absent from the meeting.
  3. “prep. {which,whom}” 引导的定语从句
    如果 which 或 whom 在定语中原为介词的宾语, 那么该介词可提到从句前.
    The house in which Lu Xun used the live is now a museum.
    The girl to whom you spoke is my sister.

  4. 限制性/非限制性定语从句

    1. 限制性定语从句
      从句与先行词关系密切, 从句为整个句子不可缺少的部分.
      The distance that light travels in one second is 300 thousand kilometers.
    2. 非限制性定语从句
      从句与先行词关系松散, 起补充说明的作用. 去掉从句后主句的意思仍然清楚, 且从句往往有逗号隔开. 不能用 that 引导
      Jim passed the driving test, which surprised everybody in the office.
      Steel, which has many useful properties, is widely in the machine-building industry.
  5. as 引导的定语从句
    As is known to all, the earth is round.
    John, as you know, is a famous writer.
    He is from the south, as we can see from his accent.

    as 常在 such…as 和 same…as 的结构中作关系代词, 引出定语从句.
    Such people as you describe are rare nowadays.
    I feel just the same as you do.

  6. 定语从句表示状语关系
    有时定语还可与主句有状语关系, 表示原因、条件、目的、结果等.
    The computer, which seems to play the role of a human brain, is often called an electronic brain. (原因)
    Computers, which have many advantages, cannot replace man. (让步)

状语从句 Adverbial Clause

由从属连词引导, 与主语连接, 常用逗号与主句分开. 如果位于句末, 其前一般不用逗号.

  1. 时间状语从句, 通常由下列连词引导: when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until/till, since, as soon as, once.

    1. when 的用法
      表示主句和从句动作同时或先后发生, 动词可以是延续性动词也可以是非延续性动词
      I worked for a foreign company when I was in Shanghai.
    2. whenever
      Come and see me whenever you want to.
    3. while 的用法
      往往表示主句和从句中的动作同时发生, 且常用延续性或表示状态的动词.
      They rushed in while we were discussing problems.
    4. as 的用法
      as 引导时间状语从句表示一边…一边…, 随着, 或者正当…
      Helen heared the story as she washed clothes.
    5. before 和 after 的用法
      before 表示在…之前, after 表示在…之后.
      I will always work hard before I enter Peking University.
      She cooked several delicious dishes for me after I got to her home.
    6. until/till 的用法
      意思相同, 可以互换, 但 till 不能用于句首
      1. 主句谓语是延续性动词时. 主句用肯定形式, 表示这个动作或状态一直持续到 until/till 引导的从句的动作发生为止.
        I will wait for you untill/till you come to see me.
      2. 主句谓语是非延续性动词时, 主句用否定形式, 表示主句的动作直到 until 引导的从句动作发生才发生(构成 not…until 结构), 此时不能用 till. (有时不用 not, 而用其它表示否定的词, 如 never, nothing)
        I didn’t go to bed until I finished my homework.
    7. since 的用法
      since 引导的时间状语从句, 一般主句用现在完成时, 从句用一般过去时.
      I have worked in this company since I graduated from Peking University.
    8. as soon as 的用法
      as soon as 引导的时间状语从句, 表示从句的动作一发生, 主句的动作也随之发生. 该从句一般用现在时表示将来时.
      I will tell him the truth as soon as he comes here.
    9. 时间状语从句还可由一些名词 (the moment, the instant, every time 等) 和副词 (instantly, directly 等) 连接.
      I’ll telephone you the instant I know.
      Every time I catch a cold, my nose runs.
    10. when, while, as 的区别
      when, while, as 引导的从句都可使用持续性动词. when 和 as 都可以与非持续性动词连用, 而 while 不能.
      when 可表示瞬间, 也可表示时间段, 与主句所陈述的动作、事情可同时发生, 也可有先后.
      while 常用于连接同时进行的两个持续性动词相伴随而发生的动作.
      as 不指先后, 尤指两个动作或事件同时发生.
      The film has been on when we arrived.
      My mother was cooking while I was doing my homework.
      As I left the house, I forgot the key.
  2. 条件状语从句
    通常有连词 if, unless, suppose/supposing (假设), provided/providing [that] (假若), on condition [that] (如果), as [so] long as (只要), in case (如果).
    主句为祈使句、一般将来或含有情态动词时, 条件状语从句通常用一般现在时.

    关于条件从句中连接词的省略, 详见非真实条件句中的虚拟语气.

    为了强调动作完成, 从句中也能用完成时
    You can go out if you have finished your homework.

    1. if 引导
      I will visit the Great Wall if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.
      If you want something done in a hurry, don’t go to the man who has clearly not much to do.

    2. unless 引导
      We’ll go for an outing tomorrow unless it rains (=if it doesn’t rain).
      I shall return on Thursday unless something unexpected happens.

    3. suppose/supposing, provided/providing 引导
      Suppose/Supposing we can’t get the necessary data, what shall we do?
      We’ll let you use the room provided/providing you keep it clean and tidy. 我们可以让你用这个房间, 但你要保持房间整洁.

    4. on condition [that] 引导
      I’ll lend you my computer on condition [that] you keep it in good shape. 如果你能保持我的计算机的良好状态, 我就可以借你用.

    5. as [so] long as 引导
      You can go out *as long as you promise to be back before 11 o’clock.

    6. in case
      Send me a message in case you have any difficulty.

    7. should 引导
      should 与主语倒装, 置于句首. 这种句式多用于表示虚拟语气的结构中, 但其主句也可以是陈述语气.
      Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis.
      Should I be free tomorrow, I will come.

  3. 原因状语从句
    原因状语从句通常由 because, since, as 或 now [that] (既然), not that…but that (不是…而是) 引导. 前三个词表示的语气由 because 到 as 逐渐递减.

    1. because 的用法
      表示因果关系的语气最强, 用来回答 why 的问题, 所引出的原因往往是听话人所不知道或者感兴趣的, because 引导的原因状语从句往往显得比主句更重要.
      I’m leaving because I am fed up with the lecture.
      My friends admire me because I can speak English as fluently as the native speakers.
    2. since 的用法
      表示已知事实, 不需要强调的原因, 因此经常译成既然…, 通常放在句首. since 引导的从句是次要的, 重点强调主句的内容.
      Since every one is here, let’s get started.
    3. as 的用法
      as 与 since 用法相似, 所引出的理由在说话人看来已经很明显, 或已为听话人所熟悉而不需要用 because 加以强调. as 引导的从句与主句具有同等的重要性.
      She didn’t hear us come in as she was asleep.
    4. now [that] 的用法
      主要用于口语, 表示微弱的原因, 主、从句因果关系不明显, 意为既然.
      Now [that] you have come, you may as well stay.
    5. not that…but that 的用法
      He felt a bit worried, not that his students were not working hard, but that they cared little for their health.
  4. 目的状语从句

    1. 目的状语从句通常由 {,so,in order} that (为了, 以便), lest (以免, 以防) 等引导. 从句谓语中常含 may, might, can, could, will, would 等情态动词.
      They set out early that they might arrive at the station in good time.
      He must get up early so that he can go to work on time.
      We sent the letter by air mail in order that it might reach them in time.
      We must hurry off lest we should miss the bus. (从句谓语虚拟语气, 即 should V1)
    2. 当从句主语与主句主语一致时, 可用 so as to 和 in order to.
      He worked day and night in order that he could succeed.
      = He worked day and night in order to succeed.
  5. 结果状语从句
    结果状语从句通常由 [so] that (结果, 以致), so…that (如此…以致), such…that (这样的…以致). 在非正式文本中, so…that, such…that 中的 that 有时可省略.

    1. [so] that 引导
      The weather was bad for some weeks, so that progress with the building of the power station slowed down.
    2. 由 so…that, such…that 引导
        1. so adj./adv. that
          The problem is so complicated that it will take us much time to work it out.
          His father gave him so many toys he couldn’t play with them all. (非正式文本可省略 that)
        2. such a/an adj. noun. that
          The aircraft was flying at such a high altitude that we could hardly see it.

        She is so lovely a girl that we love her very much.
        She is such a lovely girl that we love her very much.

        1. so adj. a/an 单数名词 that
        2. such adj. 复数/不可数名词 that

        当名词前有 many, much, little, few 修饰时, 用 so 不用 such.
        We have so much time that we can finish the work very well.

    3. so…that 句型否定形式可用简单句 too…to… 或 not…enough to 代替.
      He is so young that he can’t go to school.
      He is too young to go to school.
      He is not old enough to go to school.
  6. 让步状语从句
    让步状语从句通常由 although/though, as (尽管, 虽然), even if/though (即使), however, whatever, no matter [{how,what,where,when}], whether…or 等引导.

    1. although/though 的用法
      同义, 一般情况下可互换, 但 although 语气较重, 大多置于句首. 可与 yet 连用, 不可与 but 连用.
      They are generous though they are poor.
      Although he was Japanese, he spent most of his life in China.

      though 有时有 “但是, 不过” 的意思. 此时主句后面的让步状语从句接近并列的分句.
      I haven’t checked the information, though I think it is correct.

    2. even though/if 的用法
      同义, 表示语气更强的让步.
      Even though he is 24 new, he’s still like a little child.
      We’ll make a trip even if/though the weather is bad.

    3. wh-ever 类引导词的用法
      在英语中 wh-ever 既可引导名词性从句, 还可引导让步状语从句且可换成 “no matter + 相应 wh- 词”, 而在引导名词性从句时只能用 wh-ever.
      Whenever I am unhappy, it is my friend who cheers me up.
      = No matter when I am unhappy, it is my friend who cheers me up.

    4. as
      Try as I might, I couldn’t lift the stone. (从句语序倒装)

    5. no matter how
      He keeps on with his physical training in the winter no matter how cold it is.

    6. however
      However hard he tries, he never seeoms able to do the work satisfactoroily.

  7. 地点状语从句

    1. 引导地点状语从句的从属连词有 where 和 wherever.
      指具体地点时, 从句可位于主句之前或之后;
      表抽象含义时, 从句需放主句前.
      He lives where the climate is cool.
      Where there is a will, there is a way.
      Whereever you go you will see great changes that have taken place in that city.
    2. 注意区分 where 引导的状语从句和定语从句.
      You’d better make a mark where you have questions. (状语从句)
      You’d better make a mark | at the place where you have questions |. (有先行词, 定语从句)
  8. 比较状语从句
    比较状语从句通常由 as…as, than, not as/so…as, the…the…, as…so… 引导.
    He worked as fast as a skilled worker.
    The project was completed earlier than we had expected.
    She didn’t work as/so hard as her sister.
    The sooner, the better.
    As one is to two, so is five to ten.


  9. 方式状语从句
    方式状语从句通常由连词 as, as if/though. 从句中谓语动词哦可用陈述语气, 也可用虚拟语气. 虚拟语气用来表示比较地 “非真实性”.
    Please state the facts as they are.
    It looks as if/though it’s going to rain.

  10. 注意: 不能同时出现在一个句子中的连词

    1. because (因为) 引导原因状语从句. so (所以) 连接并列句. 不能同时出现在一个句子里, 只能用其一.
      Because he was tired, he couldn’t walk here.
      = He was tired, so he couldn’t walk here.
    2. although/though (虽然) 引导让步状语从句. but (但是) 连接并列句. 不能同时出现在一个句子里, 只能用其一.
      但 although/though 和 yet 可以出现在一个句子里 (这里 yet 不是连词, 而是副词).


引导名词性从句的关联词 (connective)


  1. 连接代词: who/whom, whose, what, which. 有词义, 在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语、表语、宾语等.
  2. 连接副词: when, where, why, how. 有词义, 在从句中充当句子成分, 作状语.
  3. 主从连词: that, whether, if, as if.
    that 无词义, 在从句中不充当句子成分, 有时可省略;
    而 whether, if, as if 虽有词义, 但在从句中不充当句子成分.
  1. 主语从句在复合句中作主语.
    Who will go is not important.

  2. 用 it 作形式主语放句首, 主语从句放句末,
    It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not.

    但 what 引导的主句从句表示 “…的东西” 时, 不用 it 做形式主语, whatever, whichever, whoever 一般也不用 it 做形式主语.
    What he needs is more experience.

  3. that 引导主语从句时不能省略
    That he suddenly fell ill made us surprised.

  1. 若主句的主语是 advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement 等名词, 则表语从句的谓语用虚拟语气, 即 “should V1”.
    His suggestion is that we (should) change our course.
  2. 主语为 reason 时, 表语从句关联词要用 that, 而不用 why 或 because.
    The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drunk.
  3. because, why, as if/as though, as, like 等也可作表语从句关联词.
    He has lung cancer. That is because he has been smoking too much.



宾语从句分三类: 动词的宾语从句、介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句.
根据不同作用, 宾语从句的关联词通常分以下几类:

  1. that
    本身无意义, 只起连接作用, 口语中可以省略.
    He said (that) Kate was good at swimming.
  2. what, which, who/whom, whose 等连接词, 在从句中作一定的成分, 如主语、宾语、表语、定语.
    I don’t know what they are going to do. (what 作宾语)
    He asked me whose book it was. (双宾; whose 作定语)
  3. when, where, why, how 等连接副词, 在从句中充当状语.
    Could you tell me where you live? (地点状语)
    Do you know how they found the place? (方式状语)
  4. If, whether 意为是否, 不作句子成分, 但不能省略. (条件状语区分: 宾语从句事情已做, 而条件状语事还没做)
    He asked me if Miss Zhao was a teacher.



  1. 同位语从句是名词性从句;
  2. 因为名词性所以同位语能替换主语或宾语, 而定语和补语不能.
  3. 主句中有些词义比较抽象的主语/宾语, 如 belief, doubt, evidence, idea, fact, hope, possibility, thought 等, 通常用 that 引出的同位语从句修饰.
    There is no doubt that a large number of people benefit from heart surgery.
    Is there any proof that the food of the plant differs from that of animals?
    如果修饰主语的同位语较长, 可置于句末:
    A plan was made last year that several roads would be built in this part of the city.


虚拟语气 Subjunctive Mood

虚拟语气是谓语动词的一种形式, 用来表示非真是的假设, 或用来表示命令、建议或说话人的主管愿望.

  1. 非真实条件中的虚拟语气
    非真实条件就是违背 (现在, 过去, 将来) 事实的假设.

    条件从句 主句
    违背现在 一般过去时 should/would V1 (过去将来时)
    违背过去 过去完成时 should/would have V3 (过去将来完成时)
    违背将来 1) should V1
    2) were 动词不定式
    should/would V1 (过去将来时)
    虚拟语气中主句第一人称用 should, 第二、三人称用 would. 但在美式英语中第一人称用 would.
    此外, 主句可用情态动词 could 或 might 代替 should 或 would.
    1. 违背现在事实的假设.
      在违背现在事实时, 如果条件从句谓语是 be, 各个人称均用 were. 但在非正式文体中, 特别是在口语中, 第一、三人称单数用 was 的也不少.
      If I were/was you. I would reconsider their proposal.
      What would you do if you were in his position.
      If the manager were/was here, he might/would make a decision. (might 可代替 would)
    2. 违背过去事实的假设
      If I had left a little earlier, I would have caught the train.
      I could have done it better if I had been more careful.
    3. 可能违背将来事实的假设
      If he should fail, we would encourage him to try again.
      If I were to do it, I would do it in a different way.
      We would wipe them out if they should attack us.
      If it should rain tomorror, what could we do?
    4. 介词短语表示假设条件.
      有时不用 if 引导条件从句, 而用介词短语表示违背事实的假设条件, 这时句中谓语动词仍用虚拟语气形式.
      Without air, there would be no wind or clouds.
      In that case we could have done the work better.
      But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.
    5. if 的省略
      如果条件从句谓语包含 had, should, were, 有时 if 可省略. 这时 had, should, were 要移到从句主语前面形成倒装. 这种句型主要见于书面形式.
      Had he not been ill, he might have come.
      Were I to do it, I would do it in a different way.
      Should it rain tomorror, what could we do?
      Were it not for his help, we chouldn’t have got over the difficulties.
  2. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气
    在表示建议、命令、要求以及表示 “重要性” 和 “紧迫性” 等含义的主语、宾语、表语、同位语从句中, 谓语动词常用虚拟语气, 由 “[should] V1” 构成.

    1. 主语从句
      在下列结构的主语从句中, 谓语动词用虚拟语气.
      It is {necessary,imperative,important,essential,advisable,better,ordered,proposed,desired,requested,suggested,recommended,demanded,decided,arranged} that
      It is desired that we [should] get everything ready before Friday.
      It is necessary that he [should] be sent there at once.
    2. 宾语从句
      在下列动词后面的宾语从句中, 谓语动词用虚拟语气: suggest, insist, recommend, order, propose, require, request, command, demand.
      He commanded that we [should] attack the enemy at once.
      They demanded that the right to vote be given to every adult man.
    3. 同位语从句和表语从句
      关联/修饰下列名词的同位语从句和表语从句中, 谓语动词用虚拟语气: suggestion, proposal, order, instruction, advice, motion (提议).
      He gave the order that the results of the experiment [should] be rechecked.
      My suggestion is that we [should] send a trade delegation to Malaysia.
  3. wish, would rather/sooner 后的虚拟语气
    动词 wish 后的宾语从句表示未实现的主观愿望. 这类宾语从句的谓语动词用虚拟语气. 其形式及对应用法如下表:

    用法 宾语谓语动词形式
    当时未实现的愿望 一般过去时
    过去未实现的愿望 过去完成时
    将来不太可能实现的愿望 过去将来时
    I wish I knew both English and French.
    We wish he hadn’t gone.

    宾语从句谓语动词为 be 时, 用 were, 单数第一、第三人称也可用 was.
    I wish I were/was as young as you.
    I would rather/sooner the football match would take place tomorrow.

    wish 如果是过去时, 后面的宾语从句虚拟语气形式不变.
    She wished she knew how to drive the car.
    I wished I hadn’t made that mistake.

  1. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合语句中, 主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气

    1. 违反现在事实
      (从句) V2, (主句) {would/should/could/might} V1
      If my brother were here, everything would be all right.
    2. 违反过去事实
      (从句) had V3, (主句) {would/should/could/might} have V3
      If you had taken my device, you wouldn’t/couldn’t) have failed in the exam.
    3. 违反将来事实
      (从句) {V3/should V1/were to V1}, (主句) {would/should/could/might} V1
      If it were Sunday tomorrow, I would/should/could/might/ go to see my grandma.
      If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out.
    4. 错综时间
      有时条件从句中动词和主语中的动作发生时间不一致, 这时动词形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整
      If you had listened to doctor, you would be all right now. (从句过去动作, 主句现在动作)

    注意: 主句中 should 只用于第一人称(但在美语中 should 常被 would 代替); 从句中 should 可用于各种人称.

  2. 虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式

    1. 省略连词 if
      在书面中, 如果虚拟条件从句中有 were, had 或 should, 可以把 if 省略, 把这几个词放到主语之前, 构成主谓倒装.
      Should he come (If he should come), tell him to ring me up.
      Were I you (If I were you), I would not do it.
    2. 用介词短语代替条件状语从句
      有时假设的情况并不用条件从句表示出来, 而是通过介词短语来表示.
      Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things.
      But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help), I couldn’t have done it.
      I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone with them.
      (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them).
      I would have finished the work, but I have been ill.
      (If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.)
    3. 省去条件状语从句
      表示虚拟从句的主句或从句有时可以省略, 但其含义仍可以推知.
      1. 省去条件从句
        (If you had wanted to,) You could have washed your clothes yourself.
      2. 省去主句(常用于表示愿望)
        If my grandma were with me!
        If only she had not left.
  1. 虚拟语气在主语从句的用法
    在 It is important(strange, natural, necessary)/suggested/desired/proposed…that… 句型中, that 所引导的主语从句的谓语动词常用 should + 动词原形的结构.
    It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules.
  2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句的用法
    1. 在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中表示与现在或过去的事实相反或对将来的主观愿望, 从句通常省略连词 that
      1. 表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从句动词用过去式或过去进行时(be + were)
        I wish I knew the answer to the question.
      2. 表示对过去情况的虚拟: 从句动词常用 had+过去分词.
        I wish(wished) I hadn’t spent so much money.
      3. 表示对将来的主观愿望: 谓语动词为 would+动词原形.
        此时要注意, 主句主语与从句主语不能相同, 因为主句主语所期望的从句动作能否实现取决于从句主语的态度和意愿(非动物名称除外).
        I wish it would stop.
        I wish you would come soon.
    2. 在 suggest, demand, order, propose, insist, command, request, desire 等动词后面的宾语从句中, 谓语动词用 should + 动词原形.
      I demand that he (should) answer me immediately.
      • 注意: 当 suggest 表示暗示, 表明之意, insist 表示坚持认为之意时, 其后宾语从句不适用虚拟语气形式, 应使用陈述语气形式.
        The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.
        The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.
    3. 在 would rather 后的宾语从句中, 也用虚拟语气, 其谓语为动词过去式(表示现在或将来动作)或过去完成时(表示过去动作)
      I would rather she came tomorrow.
      He would rather I had done the work for him.
  3. 虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法
    1. 在带有 even if/even though 引导的让步状语从句的主从复合句中, 主句和从句都用虚拟语气, 动词形式与含有非真实条件的虚拟语气相同.
      Even if he had been ill, he would have gone to his office.
    2. 由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时. 从句谓语形式为动词的过去式(be + were)或 had + 过去分词.
      He treated me as if I were a stranger.
      She talked about the film as if she had really seen it.
    3. 在 in order to 或 so that 引导的目的状语从句中, 谓语动词多用 could 或 might (有时也用 should) + 动词原形.
      Mr. Green spoke slowly so that His students could(might) hear clearly.
  4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法
    在 it is time (that)… 句型中, 定语从句的谓语常用虚拟语气表示将来时, 动词原形一般换成过去式, 意思是该做某事的时候了.
    It’s (high) time we did our homework.
  5. 虚拟语气在简单句中的用法
    1. 情态动词过去式用于现在时态, 表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌, 或委婉的语气, 常见于日常会话中.
      I would be better for you not to stay up too late.
    2. 在一些习惯表达中.
      I would rather not tell you.
    3. 用 may + 动词原形, 表示祝愿, 此时 may 必须置于句首(多用于正式文体中).
      May you be happy!
      May good luck be yours!

强调句 Emphatic Sentence

把强调的成分放到单独的分句中, 这样处理的句子成为强调句或分裂句 (cleft sentence).

强调句构成有两种形式. (that/who/which 不能省略)

  1. 强调主语、宾语、状语: It is/was 强调部分 that/who/which 剩余部分
    Anne had a severe heart attack last night.
    (强调主语) It was Anne that/who had a severe heart attack last night.
    (强调宾语) It was a severe heart attack that Anne had last night.
    (强调状语) It was last night that Anne had a severe heart attack.

    如果被强调的是人称代词, 该人称代词可用主格也可用宾格. 非正式问题中多用宾格.
    It was she/her who told the police.

    判断强调句的简便方法是将 It, is/was, that 三者去掉,句子结构仍然完整.

    另一种是用名词从句 What…is/was…, 用来强调主语或宾语.
    What impressed us most was his image.
    What I like is her writing style.

  2. 强调动词: 人称代词 + do/did + 强调部分 + that 剩余部分





  1. 情态动词 + 动词原形
  2. 助动词 + 实意动词或短语动词
  3. 助动词 + 动名词/过去分词
    The machine is drilling a hole.
  4. 系动词 + 表语(主系表可看作主谓)


独立主格是没有谓语的特殊句子, 后面需要跟上主句, 不能独立存在.
比如: Her eyes moist and red
there be 开头的句子也是独立主格

并列句 Compound sentence

结构: 简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句

  1. 分号 ;、冒号 :、逗号 ,
    Every day the newspapers carry a few pages of classified ads; in the large Sunday editions there may be several sections of them.
    I’ve just had some good news: I’ve been offered a job in a law firm.
    Sometimes I laugh, sometimes I am down.
  2. 表示转折、并列、递进关系的并列连词
    and, both…, and…, as well as, not only…but also…, neither…nor…
    My father bought me a present and I like it very much
    He is not only a good basketball player but also can play the plano very skillfully.
  3. 表示转折、对比关系的并列连词
    but, yet, while, however, whereas
    Lucy likes playing the plano while Lily likes playing basketball.
  4. 表示选择关系的并列连词
    either…or… 连接主语时, 动词和靠近它的主语在人称、数上保持一致, 即就近原则. or 或者, 还可以表示否则; otherwise
    Either you or your mother has been invited.
    Study hard, or you will fail the exam.
  5. 表示因果关系的并列连词
    so 后面接结果, for 经常用于引出推断性的原因, 不能位于句首.
    Kate was ill, so she didn’t go to school.
    It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.


  1. and 和 for 用于否定句中的用法
    1. 当列举成分是主语且在否定词之前时, 用 and 连接;
      当列举成分在否定词之后, 用 or 构成全否定(指 or 连接的两个都否定)
      Lucy and Lily can’t speak Chinese.
      I can’t sing or dance.
    2. 在否定句中, 如果所连接的两部分都有否定词. 那么用 and, 不用 or
      There is no water and no air on the moon.
    3. 在否定句中, without 之后若有列举成分, 则用 and 连接, 构成完全否定;
      在肯定句中, without 之后的列举成分要有 or 连接才能构成完全否定.
      Man can’t live without air and water.
      = Man will die without air or water.
  2. 当连结词 and 连接的并列句前半部分是祈使句, 后半部分是一般将来时的陈述句时, 前半部分相当于(指可转换成) if 引导的条件状语从句.
    这种句型还可以用 or 连接, 但转换成的 if 引导的条件状语从句需是否定形式
    Think it over, and you will find the answer.
    = If you think it over, you will find the answer.
    Hurry up, or you will be late.
    = If you don’t hurry up, you will be late.


复合句 (Complex sentence): 由一个主句和一个或一个以上从句构成的句子叫复合句, 也称主从复合句. 从句由关联词 (Connective) 引导, 可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句. 复合句的特征是至少包含两个谓语 (主句一个从句一个)的句子.



用作形式主语或宾语, 或起从句连接作用

人称/物主代词, 反身代词, 指示代词(单this/that, 复these/those)
不定代词(some-, -thing, any-, all, every-, none, no-, neither…), 相互代词, 疑问代词, 关系代词(用于从句)

  • for 反身代词: 由 (反身代词) 自己, 自己亲自; 为 (代词) 自己
  • by 反身代词: 不依靠别人, 独立地
  • in 反身代词: 就 (代词) 自己本身来说


whereas 然而; 鉴于
wh-ever 任何…

冠词 Article

冠词放在名词前. 冠词语两种: 不定冠词 (indefinite article) a/an 和定冠词 (definite article) the.
a/an 表示泛指, a 用在辅音前, an 用在元音前.
the 表示特指.

单复数: a/an 只能用于单数名词. the 可用于单/复数名词和不可数名词.

  1. 不定冠词
    1. 表示人或事物的某一种类, 以区别其他类
      She is a language teacher.
      What you saw in sky last night was a man-made satelite.
    2. 表示 “一” 这一数量概念, 但不强调.
      The special apparatus had a cage for the rat and three doors.
      Some people think of a family as a mother, a father, and their children.
    3. 表示 “某个”、任何一个" 或 “每一个” 的意思.
      By eating an animal, you could get some of the good qualities of that animal for yourself.
      A library could hardly be used if the books were kepe in random order.
  2. 定冠词
    1. 表示某个或某些特定的人或事物.
      This is the house where my father once lived.
      Let’s see how the rat will open the door for itself.

    2. 表示前面已提过的人或事物.
      There is a girl and an old man standing at the bus stop. I think the man must be the girl’s father.
      I got a letter yesterday. The letter was sent from Russia by my uncle.

    3. 表示说话人和听话人都知道的人或事物.
      Close the door, please.
      Let’s meet at the railway station.

    4. 表示独一无二的食物.
      The moon is about 239,000 miles away from the earth.
      The whole world is waiting for the result of their talks.

    5. 和可数名词单数连用, 表示一类人或事物.
      Anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is regarded as either eccentric or mad.
      The family is important to people all over the world.

      可数名词的类属可用 ‘the 单数名词’、‘a/an 单数名词’ 或 ‘复数名词’ 表示.
      The hammer is a useful tool.
      A hammer is a useful tool.
      Hammers are useful tools.

    6. 某些河流、海洋、山脉、群岛、海峡、海湾常加定冠词.
      the Yangtze, the Red Sea, the Alps, the Philippines, the English Channel, the Persian Guff.

    7. 某些由普通名词和其他词构成的专有名词前多要加定冠词.
      the People’s Republic of China,
      the United Nations,
      the State Council,
      the Great Hall of the People,
      the Daily Mail,
      the Capital Theatre.

    8. 在某些形容词前加定冠词, 是形容词名词化, 代表某类人.
      the poor, the rich, the sick, the wounded, the oppressed.

    9. 在序数词、形容词最高级和表示方位的名词前要加定冠词.
      The second tax is for the state government.
      The simplest kind of advertising is the classified ad.
      The sun rises in the east.

    10. 在某些习惯用语的名词前加定冠词.
      in the {morning,afternoon,evening}, in the city, by the way, for the time being (暂时), on the whole, out of the question (毫无可能的).

  3. 不加冠词
    1. 泛指的不可数名词或表示一般概念的复数名词不加冠词.
      Meaningfulness affects memory at all levels.
      Air is necessary in many ways.
      Social scientists study families.
    2. 人名、地名不加冠词.
      Deng Xiaoping, George Washington, India, Los Angeles, Paris, Hong Kong.
    3. 名词前已有 this, that, our, your, some, any, no, every 等代词作定语时, 不加冠词.
      Some birds are very lively in their sports.
      They could occasionally see part of our earth in full sunlight.
    4. 在某些固定词组或习惯用法中的名词不加冠词.
      go to bed, by air, at home, in fact, after school, in town, from morning till night.


放在宾语/主语前, 视主语/谓语动词而定

TODO: 方位介词

用 for 还是 to 还是 of?
后接动作对象时, to 和 for 差不多
表示事物性质特点或原因或目标或一段时间用 for
形容人性格或品质用 of

常见介词短语(介词+名词, 介词后跟宾语)

be relevant to

change in // 强调改变的内容
change of // 强调改变本身
change to/into // 强调改变后的状态

confident of

have effect on = affect

be bound to 一定要

impact on
carry out
mastery over

cross out 删去

matter to 对…很重要
so as to 以便于
be up to 取决于

an integral part of …不可或缺的一部分
multitude of 众多的

through thick and thin 风雨同舟





助动词: do, have, be, 情态动词
助动词作用: 构成时态、语态, 表达情感

情态动词 Modal Verb

情态动词: 主要有 can/could, may/might, must, need, ought, dare, 词为 shall/should, will/would 在一定场合也可用作情态动词.
情态动词的特点是它有一定的词义, 但通常需同另一个动词一起构成复合谓语. 除 ought 不定式外, 其他情态动词都跟动词原形.

  1. can

    1. 表示能力.
      Two eyes can see more than one.
      The theatre can seat 1,500 people.
    2. 表示可能性.
      You can’t expect others to pay for your food, your clothes and your room.
      You can sometimes meet him at the college.
    3. 表示允许. 该用法和 may 意思相近.
      You can/may go now.
      We can’t smoke near the gas station.
    4. 后接动词完成时, 表示可能已做某事.
      Where can he have gone?
      They can’t have gone out because the light’s on! 他们不可能已经出门了, 因为灯还亮着呢?
    5. 后接动词进行时, 表示可能正在做某事.
      What can he be doing at this time of the day?
      He can’t be swimming all day.
  2. could

    1. 表示能力、允许和可能性 (作为 can 的过去式).
      When he was young, he could speak both English and French very well.
      She asked whether she could take the books out of the reading-room.
    2. 用于委婉地提出请求、疑问或看法. 在时态上与 can 没有差别.
      Could you lend me some money?
      Could that be true?
    3. 后接动词完成时, 表示可能已做某事或本可以做某事.
      How could she have forgotten her own name? 她怎么可能连自己名字都忘了呢?
      We could have started a little earlier. 我们本可以早点动身.
  3. may

    1. 表示允许.
      May I trouble you with a question?
      You may do exactly as you like.
    2. 表示可能性
      You may walk ten miles without seeing a house.
      It may be a new model of engine.
    3. 后接动词完成时, 表示可能已做某事.
      He may have seen the movie.
    4. 后接动词进行时, 表示可能正在做某事.
      They may be waiting for you.
      She may be leaving tomorrow.
  4. might

    1. 表示允许、可能性. (作为 may 的过去式)
      I asked her if I might see her.
      I thought it might be difficult for her to study psychology.
    2. may 的委婉形式. 在时态上与 may 没有差别.
      Mr. White might want to contact you.
      Might I ask for another cup of tea?
    3. 后接动词完成时, 表示可能已做某事或本可以做某事.
      He might have read the book.
    4. 后接动词进行时, 表示可能正在做某事.
      She might still be thinking about the questions you raised.
      He might be planning to buy a car instead of a motorcycle.
  5. must

    1. 表示必须要做某事.
      We must leave at 5.
      You must come earlier tomorrow.

      must 的否定是表示 “必须不能”.
      You mustn’t talk like that.
      We mustn’t stay here any longer.

      must 也可表示过去的情况, 主要用在间接引语或宾语从句中.
      She said that she must finish her homework at once.
      I felt I must call and see her.

    2. 表示推测.
      This must be your room.
      There must be a mistake.

    3. 后接动词完成时, 表示想必已经做某事.
      They must have arrived by now.
      She must have made a big mistake.

    4. 后接动词进行时, 表示想必正在做某事.
      Let’s hurry up. She must be waiting for us.
      You must be joking.

  6. ought
    ought 与不定式构成谓语动词. 主要用法如下:

    1. 表示应该做某事.
      You ought to take his advice.
      You oughtn’t to smoke so much. 你不应该抽太多烟.
      Oughtn’t we to give him a change to try?
    2. 后接不定时完成时, 表示本应该做某事.
      He ought to have done the exercise more carefully.
      You oughtn’t to have spoken to her in that way.
  7. need
    need 做情态动词时, 主要用于否定句和疑问句.
    Need he go soon? 他需要马上走吗?
    You needn’t tell him.

    need 后接动词完成时, 主要用于否定句, 表示本可不必做某事.
    You needn’t have told her that.
    You need not have gone there yestereday.

    need 也可用作及物动词, 后接名词、不定式、动名词等做宾语.
    She needs your help.
    They did not need to arrive so early.

  8. dare
    dare 作情态动词时, 主要用于否定句、疑问句和条件句.
    He daren’t even look at you.
    No one dared live there any longer.

    但是 dare 多用做及物动词, 后接不定时作宾语.
    We must dare to think, to speak and to act.
    I wondor how he dared to say such a thing.
    She stopped at the door, not daring to enter.
    但有时作 dare 宾语的不定式符号 to 也可省略.
    I didn’t dare (to) look up.
    They do not dare (to) speak.

  9. shall
    shall 通常作助动词, 它和其它动词一起构成将来时态, 主要用于第一人称.
    但 shall 也可作情态动词, 用于第二和第三人称.
    The seller shall make shipment before October and the buyer shall make payment within 10 days after receipt of the goods.
    The law shall come into effect on May 1st.

  10. should
    should 除作为助动词 shall 的过去式用于第一人称外, 还可作情态动词.

    1. 表示劝告或建议.
      He should learn how to drive the car.
      You should listen to the doctor’s advice.
    2. 表示预测或可能.
      They should be home by now, I think.
      This kind of reference book should be in the reading-room.
    3. 表示惊奇、愤怒、失望等感情.
      Why should I go?
      I can’t think why you should tell her about it.
      It’s strange that it should be so hot tody. 很怪, 今天这么热.
    4. 后接动词完成时, 表示应该已经做某事.
      You are right, I should have thought of that.
      They shouldn’t have left so soon.
    5. 后接动词进行时, 表示应该正在做某事.
      Why should we be sitting here doing nothing?
      You shouldn’t be working like that.
  11. will
    will 通常作助动词构成将来时态. 但 will 有时也可作情态动词, 可用于各个人称, 表示意志、意愿和习惯等.
    I will do my best.
    I will pay you at a rete you ask.

    will 在疑问句中用于第二人称时, 表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问.
    Will you explain the sentence once again?
    Won’t you come in and have a cold drink?

  12. would
    would 除作为助动词 will 的过去式构成过去将来时态外, 还可作为情态动词.

    1. 作为情态动词 will 的过去式, 可用于各个人称, 表示意志、意愿和习惯等.
      He said that he would do everything to help us.
      I told her that I would go with her.
    2. would 在疑问句中用于第二人称时, 也表示说话如向对方提出请求或询问, 但语气更为委婉.
      Would you tell me something about yourself?
      Would you like to have a cup of milk?


使役动词: have, make, let, help, use


系动词: 后面不接宾语, 而接表语.
非实义系动词: be
实义系动词:be, ramain appear, keep, 感官动词(look, sound, feel, smell, taste, seem, …), 趋势动词(get, go, become, turn, grow, remain, come, fall, hold, keep, stand, stay…)

不完全不及物动词: 需跟表语意思才完整, become,
如 The match | become | very exciting.

系动词否定形式: don’t+系动词



await (vt.) = wait (vi.) for

短语动词 Phrasal Verb


  • 动词 介词
    I look after my young brother.
  • 动词 副词
    Cats are taking over the planet.
  • 动词 副词 介词
    He is moving forward to it.
  • 动词 名词 介词
    Not all nursery schools make use of the opportunities open to them.

take into

set apart // set us apart as beings

compare to // point out resemblances between objects regarded as essentially of a different order
compare with // point out different between objects regarded as essentially of the sane order

give up 的两种形式
give up sth. 名词
give it up 代词


不可单独作谓语. 非谓语动词有三种: 不定式、分词和动名词.

不定式 Infinitive
  1. 构成 to V1 (to 是不定式的符号, 无意义, 有时可省略).
    不定式保有动词特征, 可以有自己的状语和宾语 (及物动词), 组成不定式短语, 但没有三单和复数形式.
    如 to read the text slowly.

    不定式前可加某些疑问代词, 如 who, what, which; 或疑问副词如 when, where, how, why 等. 构成特殊的不定式短语.
    如 what to do next, how to get there.

    不定式还可有逻辑主语, 构成另一种特殊的不定式短语. 它由 “for 名词 不定式” 组成.
    如 for the children to watch TV, for us to look for a job.

    当不定式[短语]修饰的名词需通过介词才能联系时, 该不定式末尾需附有此介词:
    The light is | too weak to read by. (too weak to read by the light)
    The house is | good enough for us to live in. (good enough for us to live in the house.
    She’d like to have someone to speak English to. (to speak English to Her)

  2. 用法

    1. 作主语
      To learn English is not easy for me.
      不定式短语作主语时, 往往放在最后面, 而用 it 作为形式主语. 其结构为 It be adj. [for/of sb.] 动词不定式
      如上句可改为 It is not easy for me to learn English.

    2. 作主语补语
      复合宾语中不定式作宾补时, 若变为被动语态, 原宾语变为主语, 原宾语补语变为主语补语.
      不定式作主语补语时, 不能省略 to.
      He was asked to maek a speech at the meeting.
      They were made to work day and night.

    3. 作表语
      My work is to clean the room everyday.

    4. 作宾语
      What sport does he like to play? He likes to play football.

      不定式常作某些及物动词的宾语, 不能作介词的宾语 (but, expect 除外).
      这些动词常常表示命令、打算或希望. 这些及物动词有: afford, aim, claim, decline, demand, resolve, threaten, determine, endeavor, would like, want, like, wish, hate, hope, continue, manage, try, offer, start, begin, forget, promise, mean (打算), pretend, intend (想要), decide, learn, desire, agree, care, choose (愿意), refuse, fail, plan, expect 等.
      Would you like to see a film this evening?

      如果谓语为 find/think 后跟不定式作宾语时, 常用 it 作形式宾语, 而将真正的宾语放在最后面.
      I find it hard to write English articles.
      注意: 不定式常和疑问代词/副词 what, which, when, where, how 作不定式短语的宾语, 在句法中作宾语从句.
      The kid doesn’t know how to do it himself. (= how he should do it himself.)

    5. 作宾语补语
      Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.
      有些及物动词的宾语后常有不定式作宾语补语, 构成复合宾语, 这样意义才能完整. 这些及物动词有 tell, ask, invite, force, get (让), allow, wish, want, hate, help, leave, expect, prefer, advise, presuade, permit, remind, request, order, warn, mean (打算), cause, allow, would like, encourage 等.
      Would you like us to go with you.
      He asked you to call him back at 11.

      还有一些使役动词和感官动词也用不定式作宾补. 这时要省略 to. 这些动词有: 一感 (feel, notice), 二听 (hear, listen to), 三让 (let, make, have), 四看 (look at, see, watch, notice), 但是这些动词变被动语态时, 作动词的不定式必须加上 to
      The boss made them work the whole night.
      They were made to work the whole night by the boss.

    6. 作定语
      不定式作定语应放在被修饰名词之后 (只作后置定语), 它与被修饰名词之间有逻辑上的被动关系.
      We don’t have enough food to eat.
      如果不定式是不及物动词, 且与所修饰词间有被动关系, 需在不定式后加上适当介词.
      There is nothing to worry about.
      Do you have any ink to write with?
      It is a very good school to study in.

    7. 作状语
      不定式作状语, 用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子. 通常表示目的、结果、原因、程度等.

      1. 作目的状语
        To save the time, we took the plane to Beijing.
        注意: 如果强调此目的, 可在不定式前加 in order/so as. 但 so as to 不能用于句首.
        I will take notes in order not to/so as not to forget these important points.
      2. 作结果状语, 往往表示出乎意料的结果, 常与 only 连用
        He hurried to the station only to find that the train had left.
        著名的 too…to…句式
        It is too late to do anything now.
      3. 作原因状语
        To hear him talk to me in that manner, you would think that the is my boss.
        We are pround to be the citizens of China.
      4. 作程度状语
        He is old enough to go to school.
        Mary wouldn’t be so careless as to forget her key.
  3. 时态与语态

    1. 一般现在时
      She was seen to enter the hall. (seen 与 to enter 两个动作同时发生)
      I have some news to tell you. (to tell 动作发生在 have 之后)

    2. 现在进行时
      They seem to be getting along quite well.
      They are said to be building another bridge across the river. 据说他们正在这条河上修建另一座大桥.

    3. 现在完成时
      I am sorry to have hept you waiting. (to have kept 发生在 am 表示的时间之前)
      She seems to have read the book before.

    4. 被动语态
      不定式中, 及物动词的简单时和完成时有被动语态, 但不及物动词则都没有被动语态.

      及物动词 不及物动词
      一般时 to V1 to V1
      to be V3
      完成时 to have V3 to have V3
      to have been V3
      进行时 to be V(+ing) to be V(+ing)
      完成进行时 to have been V(+ing) to have been V(+ing)
      当不定式的逻辑主语是该不定式动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式. Is is an honour for me *to be asked to speak here*. He wanted the letter *to be mailed at once*.

      但在某些句子中, 虽然不定式与最近的名词与动宾关系, 但与句中另一个名词却可能有主谓关系. 这时不定式常用主动式.
      He has no one to take care of. (He 与 to take care of 有主谓关系)
      We still have many difficulties to overcome.
      Give him some books *to read, please.
      They found the lecture hard to understand.

动名词 Gerund

动名词兼有名词特性, 可作主语, 及物动词的动名词可带宾语, 比如:
Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.
独立结构 with + n. (all the information) + V3 (placed [in a single mental picture]) 作方式状语修饰动名词短语 forming an integrated image.

  1. 构成: V+ing

  2. 用法

    1. 作主语
      Eating too much is bad for your health.
      Talking mends no holes. 空谈无济于事.

      在某些结构中, 可用引导词 it 作形式主语放句首, 而将世纪主语放句尾.
      It is no use asking her advice.
      It is a waster of time discussing such matters.

    2. 做表语
      The real problem is getting to know the needs of the customers.
      Her job is nursing the disabled.

      动名词和不定式都可做主语或表语. 一般来说, 在表示比较抽象的一般行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某次动作或将来发生的动作时, 多用不定式.
      Smoking is not allowed here.
      To smoke so much is not good for you.
      Their job is building houses.
      Their work is to build another bridge across the river.

    3. 作宾语

      1. 作动词宾语
        以下及物动词及短语动词常用动名词做宾语: acknowledge, admit, advocate, avoid, contemplate, dislike, evade, fancy, grudge, recollect, response, resist, include, finish, suggest, stop, mind, enjoy, require, postpone, delay, practise, excuse, risk, consider, miss, imagine, deny, escape, put off, give up, keep on, can’t help (禁不住), be worth, have trouble/problems/difficulty (in), spend some time/money (in), feel like, be/get used to.
        She suggested spending another day in the mountain area.
        I enjoy seeing you and talking about old times.
        There’s no way to escape doing the work.
        require 后的动名词有被动含义.
        Does you care require servicing?

        在 love, like, hate, prefer, begin, start, continue, intend, attempt, propose, deserve, need, want, can’t bear, can’t afford 等动词后可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语, 两种结构在意义上差别不大.
        I like {playing,to play} basketball very much.
        need, want 后面的动名词具有被动含义.
        Your suit needs {ironing,to be ironed}. 你的西服需要烫平.
        The plants want {watering,to be watered}.
        在 like, hate, prefer 等动词后, 如果表示一般倾向, 多用动名词作宾语; 如指具体某次动作, 多用不定式.
        I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book.
        I prefer to stay at home today.
        在 begin, start 和 cease 后, 如果表示有意识地开始或停止某动作, 多用动名词; 如果动作自动或惕然开始或停止则多用不定式.
        He began talking about his plan for summer hoildays.
        Suddenly it began to rain.

        在 remember, regret 等动词后, 动名词做宾语和不定式作宾语的意义差距明显. 动名词表示已经做了, 不定时表示将要去做.
        I remember seeing her once somewhere.
        I must remember to write to you often.
        I regret not haveing taken your advice.
        I regret to say that we can’t accept your price.

      2. 作介词宾语
        动名词也和作介词的宾语, 并和介词一起构成介词短语. 在句中作定语、状语或表语.
        Stamps are used for sending letters.
        The simplest kind of advertising is the classified ad.

    4. 做定语
      单个动名词可作前置定语. 如 drinking water 饮用水, drawing paper 绘图纸.
      动名词做定语与现在分词做定语有所不同: 动名词和他所修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系, 即前者不是后者发出的动作.
      working method 工作方法 (working 是动名词, working 不是 method 发出的动作, 等价于 method for working)
      working people 劳动人民 (working 是现在分词, working 是 people 发出的动作, 等价于 people who work)

  3. 时态与语态

    主动 被动
    一般时 V+ing being V3
    完成时 having V3 having been V3
    1. 一般时
      表示动名词的动作与谓语动作同时发生, 或在谓语动作之后发生.
      Children enjoy reading picture-story books.
      He only took interest in buying a second-hand computer. (buying 在 took interest 之后)

    2. 完成时
      He was praised for having made such a contribution to his community.
      I regret having told her the news.

      但在某些动词后或在某种情况下, 也可用动名词的一般时代替完成时, 尽管动名词的动作发生在谓语动词之前.
      I don’t remember ever seeing the car anywhere.
      Thank you for giving us so much help.
      On returning home, she found her father had been sent to hospital.

    3. 被动式
      当动名词的逻辑主语是动名词动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形式.
      He did all this without being asked by anyone.
      After having been interviewed, he was offered the job.

  4. 动名词的逻辑主语
    动名词可用物主代词或所有格来修饰, 表示动名词的逻辑主语.
    Do you mind my making a suggestion?
    I’m pleased with John’s paying his income tax in time.

    但在非正式英语中, 尤其是当动名词在句中做宾语时, 更常见的是用人称代词和普通格修饰动名词.
    Do you mind me making a suggestion?
    I’m pleased with Join paying his income tax in time.

现在分词通常表示修饰词的动作或状态, 可扩展为定语从句; 动名词通常表示所修饰的食物的用途或目的, 不可扩展为定语从句, 但可扩展为介词短语.
swimming mammals = mammals that swim (现在分词作定语)
swimming pool = pool for swimming (动名词作定语)

分词 Participle

分词的作用相当于形容词, 在句中可以担当定语、表语、状语、补语.

  1. 现在分词 (present participle) 与过去分词 (past participle)
    现在分词 V+ing; 过去分词 V+ed, 但有不规则形式.
    现在分词有主动、进行之意; 过去分词有被动、完成之意.
  2. 用法
    1. 作定语
      单个分词常放在修饰名词前, 分词短语常放在被修饰名词后. 但有时过去分词也可放在被修饰名词之后.
      现在分词作定语修饰其逻辑主语; 过去分词作定语修饰其逻辑宾语.
      Do you know the girl standing under the tree?
      Please hand in your written exercises.
      They decided to change the material used. (单个过去分词作后置定语)

    2. 作状语
      作状语的分词通常放在句首或句尾, 有时也可插在主谓直接.
      Relying on our own efforts, we overcame all the difficulties. (原因)
      Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. (时间)
      The teacher walked about the classroom, using his hands to help him in his explanation. (方式)
      The child fell, striking his head against the door and cutting it. (结果)
      The students went out of the school, laughing and talking (方式或伴随情况)
      Given better attention, the trees could grow better. (条件)

      为了表示明确时间或条件, 有时可在分词前加 when, while, if 等连词.
      When leaving the airport, she waved again and again to us.
      While waiting for the train, I had a long talk with Jane.
      If translated word by word, the sentence will be meaning less.

      当主句和从句主语不一致且要用分词作状语时 (称为独立结构 absolute construction), 要在分词前面加上动作的逻辑主语. 在很多情况下表示时间、原因、条件或伴随情况.
      The hoildays being over, they began to get down to do their work again. (时间)
      So many people being absent, we decided to put the meeting off. (原因)
      Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday. (条件)
      We went far into the forest, her father acting as guide. (伴随)
      有时这样的独立结构还可用介词 with 引导.
      He stood there with his hands crossed before him.
      With tears rolling down her cheeks, she carefully covered her mother’s body with sand.

    3. 作表语
      现在分词表示主语的性质、特征; 过去分词表示某种状态.
      The book is so interesting that I will read it again.
      The boy is too frightened to move.

    4. 作补语
      现在分词作补语, 被补足的宾语/主语是它的逻辑主语
      过去分词作补语, 被补足的宾语/主语是它的逻辑宾语 (因为过去分词有被动含义)
      分词可在 see, hear, notice, watch, keep, find, get, have, feel 等动词后与一个名词构成复合宾语.
      Don’t keep us waiting for a long time.
      I heard him singing in the classroom.
      He’ll have his hair cut after school.

      当谓语变为被动语态时, 原宾语变为主语, 原宾语补语变为主语补语.
      The hall was found thoroughly cleaned and everything arranged in good order.
      The children were heard singing the song.

      在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel 等动词后既可用现在分词也可用不带 to 的不定式作宾语补语. 现在分词强调动作正在进行和发展中, 而不定时表示动作的全过程已经结束.
      She saw the man getting on the truck. 她看见那个人在往卡车上爬.
      She saw the man get on the truck and drive off. 她看见那个人爬上卡车并把车开走了.
      —Do you hear someone knocking at the door?
      —Yes, I heared him knock three times.

  3. 现在分词的时态和语态
    主动 被动
    一般时 V+ing being V3
    完成时 having V3 having been V3
    1. 完成时
      现在分词的完成时主要用在状语中, 表示该动作在谓语动作之前发生.
      Having done his homework, the boy began to watch TV.
      Having watered the vegetables, the farmer took a short rest.
    2. 被动式
      现在分词的被动式不仅表示被动, 而且表示这个动作正在发生, 或与谓语动作同时发生.
      The bridge being built there will be one of the longest in China. (正在进行, 定语)
      Being surrounded, the enemy were forced to put down their guns. (正在进行, 状语)
      He found the topic being discussed everywhere. (being discussed 与 found 同时发生, 宾语补语)
    3. 完成时被动式
      现在分词的完成时被动式不仅表示被动, 而且表示这个动作在谓语动作之前发生.
      Having been given such a good chance, how could she give it up?
      Having been told that some guests were coming, she shopped all morning in that supermarket.
  1. 动词不定式复合结构用 of 或 for 的区别
    在 kind, good, nice, clever 等表示人的品质、特征的形容词后, 不用 for 而用 of;
    在表示事物性质特点的形容词后用 for.
    It’s very clever of you to do it like this.
    It’s very difficult for me to finish the task in an hour.
  2. 不定式符号 to 和介词 to 的区别
    to 既可以是不定式的符号, 也可以是介词, 后面跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语.
    常用的含有介词 to 的短语:
    make a contribution to
    get/be used/accustomed to…
    apply to
  3. 动词不定式作宾补和现在分词作宾补的区别
    see, watch, hear, feel 等感官动词
    后接省略 to 的不定式作宾补时, 表示动作的全过程已经结束;
    后接现在分词作宾补, 表示动作正在进行.
    I saw him cross the street.
    I saw him crossing the street
  4. 某些动词后面接不定式和动名词有区别
    stop, forget, remember, try, regret, mean, go on, can’t help
  5. need, require, want 后面跟不定式和动名词作宾语的区别
    后面接动名词主动式表示被动含义, 也可跟不定式的被动式.
    The window needs cleaning.
    The window needs to be cleaned.

TODO: 整理特点


如 We walked as fast as we could, hoping to catch the 9:30 train

like to do 想去做某事
like doing 习惯于
go on/continue to do 停下手上的活做其他的事请
go on/continue doing 一直在做没有停止
remember/forget to do 记得/忘记将要去做
remember/forget doing 记得/忘记做过
try to do 尽力,努力
try doing 尝试
mean to do 打算去做
mean doing 意味着
regret to do 抱歉(为将要发生的事请)
regret doing 抱歉(已经发生的事请)
begin/start to do 下意识的
begin/start doing 自然发生的

need doing=need to be do: need 为情态动词; need to do: need 为实意

hear sb doing 和 hear sb do: 前者进行时, 后置强调结果

be worthy of being done = worthwhile to do

first 和 last 用不定式
the first to do
the last to do

no good/use 用动名词

please/happy/enough 用不定式

cannot but 用动名词

let alone 用动名词

spend on sth.
spend in doing

plan 用不定式

permit 用动名词

miss 用动名词

practice 用动名词

have no … but 用动名词

worth 用动名词

spend (in) doing

it takes sb. some time to do sth.



英语动词从时间 (time) 上看有现在、过去、将来机过去将来; 从体 (aspect) 上看有一般、进行、完成及完成进行. 动词的时间与体的结合即动词时态 (verb tense).
在十六种时态中, 将来完成进行时 (future perfect continusus tense)、过去将来进行时 (past future continuous tense)、过去将来完成时 (past future perfect tense)、过去将来完成进行时 (past future perfect continuous tense) 很少使用.

分清句子时态: 过去的过去用过去完成时; 见到一段时间用完成时

谓语动词有主动和被动两种语态. 主动语态 (active voice) 表示主语是动作执行者, 被动语态 (passive voice) 表示主语是动作的承受者, 宾语是动作的执行者.
被动语态一共有十二种, 但实际常用的只有八种.

不定式的主动式时态有一般现在时, 现在进行时和现在完成时三种. 被动式时态有一般现在时和现在完成时两种.

aspect\time Present Past Future Past Future
Simple V1-s/es V2 will/shall V1 would/should V1
am/is/are V3 was / were   V3 will/shall   be V3 would/should   be V3
to V1
to be V3
Continuous am/is/are V+ing was / were   V+ing will/shall   be V+ing would/should   be V+ing  (Rare)
am/is/are   being   V3 was / were   being   V3 will/shall   be   being   V3  (Rare) would/should   be   being   V3  (Rare)
to be V+ing
Perfect has/have V3 had   V3 will/shall   have V3 would/should   have V3  (Rare)
has/have   been   V3 had   been   V3 will/shall   have   been   V3  (Rare) would/should   have   been   V3  (Rare)
to have V3
to   have   been   V3
Perfect   Continuous has/have   been   V+ing had   been   V+ing will/shall   have   been   V+ing  (Rare) would/should   have   been   V+ing  (Rare)
一般现在时 Simple Present Tense
  1. 经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态. 常和表示频率的时间状语 (如 often, always, usually, sometimes, every day, once a week) 连用.
    He takes a walk after supper every day.
    How often do you wash your hair?
  2. 表示主语的特征、性格、能力等.
    Mr. Smith hates fish and never eats any.
    She has great concern for others.
  3. 客观事实或普遍真理.
    The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
    Light travels faster than sound.
  4. 表示安排或计划好的将来发生的动作.
    The plane takes off at 10 a.m.
    When does the train leave for Shanghai?
  5. 在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来的动作.
    Please wait till Jane arrives.
    When you see her, just tell her that I am all right.
  6. 代替过去时表示某些文学作品中的情节描写, 或用于引述书看材料.
    The little boy goes up to the policeman and says, “There’s a car accident over there.”
    The author says that the soldiers fight for freedom not for money.
一般过去时 Simple Past Tense

表示过去某时发生的动作或状态, 常和表示过去的时间状语 (如 yesterday, last week, three years age, in 1984) 连用.
She bought a Sabtabb kast week.
He lived in London when he was young.

一般将来时 Simple Future Tense

They will leave for Hong Kong tomorrow.
We won’t be free tonight.

在时间或条件状语从句中, 一般不用将来时, 而用现在时代替.
I’ll let you know when I*'m* through with the work.
If you put the baby down, he will scream.


  1. am/is/are goint to V1
    We are going to visit the Museum of Chinese History tomorrow.
    How long are you going to stay here?
  2. am/is/are about to V1
    We are about to leave, so there is no time to visit her now.
    Please get everything ready. The experiment is about to start.
  3. am/is/are to V1
    The girl are to go to school next week.
    There is to be a sport meet on Saturday.
过去将来时 Past Future Tense

He told me that he would see mee off at the station.
I rang up to tell my father that I should go home next Monday.

和一般将来时类似, 过去将来时也有特殊形式:

  1. was/were going to V1
    There were going to have a meeting to discuss the matter.
  2. was/were about to V1
    I was about to go out when a friend of mine dropped in.
  3. was/were to V1
    They were to visit the White House that afternoon
现在进行时 Present Continuous Tense

What are you doing?
I*'m doing* some washing.

有些动词 (如 go, come, stay, leave, start) 的现在进行时形式也可表示将来即将发生的动作.
He is coming to see you tomorrow.
The plane is leaving for London.

有些表示状态和感觉的动词不用于或在某个词义上不用于进行时. 如 hate, like, love, believe, think (以为), look (看起来), mind (在意), have (有), seem, sound (听起来), remain.

过去进行时 Past Continuous Tense

I was practicing my oral English at eight o’clock yesterday evening.
When I saw her, she was working at the computer.

与现在进行时类相似, go, come, stay, leave 等动词的过去进行时形式可以表示过去将要发生的动作.
She asked my whether I was starting the next day.
Mr. White told me that he was leaving for Singapore in a few days.

将来进行时 Future Continuous Tense

“What will you be doing at there tomorrow afternoon?” “I*'ll be flying* to Hong Kong.”
We shall be having a business talk with Mr. Brown in a minute.

现在完成时 Present Perfect Tense

表示过去开始, 但持续到现在的动作; 或表示过去发生的动作, 但对现在仍留下某种影响.
My mother has been ill for three days.
I have not seen her since 1991.

过去完成时 Past Perfect Tense

表示过去某个时间或某个动作前已经完成的动作; 或表示过去某个时间开始一直延续到过去另一个时间的动作.
When I came to her room, she had alrady left.
I waited until he had finished his work.

将来完成时 Future Perfect Tense

We hope it will have stopped raining before we set of for the picnic.
I*'ll have dont* all the work by the time you are back this eveing.

现在完成进行时 Present Perfect Continuous Tense

表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作. 这个动作可能刚刚结束, 也有可能继续进行下去.
She has been working in Shenzhen since 1985.
Where have you been? I have been looking for you everywhere.

过去完成进行时 Past Perfect Continuous Tense

表示过去某个时间以前已经开始而又延续到过去这个时间的动作. 这个动作可能刚刚结束, 也可能还在继续.
He told me that he had been teaching physics for more thant twenty years.
Dick had been smocking for ten years before he decided to give it up last year.

时态呼应 The Sequence of Tenses

名词从句, 尤其是宾语从句中的动词时态, 常受主句中时态的影响.
例如 She told John that she liked his tie 中, 从句的谓语 like 用了过去时, 这并不是说她现在已经不喜欢 John 的领带了. 而是因为主句的谓语是过去时.
规则: 从句谓语由一般现在时变成一般过去时, 一般过去时变为过去完成时, 一般将来时变成过去将来时. 即
主句现在时态, 从句该用什么时态用什么.
主句过去时态, 分情况讨论:

  1. 从句动作若在主句动作发生之前, 从句用过去完成时态.
  2. 从句的动作与主句动作同时发生, 用一般过去时或过去完成时.
    I thought the experiment was going on now.
  3. 从句动作发生在主句动作之后, 从句用过去将来时
    She siad the apparatus would be available next week.


  1. 客观真理, 自然现象, 格言谚语.
    The boys learned yesterday that the planets are circling about the sun. (不用 were circling)
  2. 从句中有表示绝对过去时间的状语.
    The old man said he joined the Red Army in 1933. (不用 have joined)
  3. 说话者强调动作现在正在进行或将要发生.
    He told me the train leaves at three. (不用 left)

被动是针对于主语而言的, 无生命的一般为被动

  1. 在被动语态的句子中, 动作的执行者一般由介词 by 引起的短语来表示.
    We often help them. (主动)
    They are often helped by us. (被动)
  2. 被动语态常用于一下情况
    1. 当不知道动作执行者是谁或没有必要提到动作执行者.
      Paper was first made in China.
      No decision has been made so far.
    2. 当强调或突出动作承受者的作用时. 此时动作执行者用介词 by 加代表动作执行者的名词或代词表示.
      The new machine was invented by a 20-year-old young worker.
  3. 被动语态的几种特殊结构
    1. 不及物动词、表状态动词一般用主动语态(即不能作被动)
      come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur, belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed
    2. 含情态动词的被动语态结构: 情态动词 + be + 及物动词的过去分词.
      The goods must be shipped before the end of September.
      In this sense, bad things can be turned into good things.
    3. 短语动词的被动语态结构.
      短语动词应作为一个整体看待, 变为被动语态不能丢弃构成短语动词的介词、副词或名词等成分.
      We have sent for the doctor. The doctor has been sent for.
      We shall put off the meeting till Friday. The meeting will be put off till Friday.
      People looked down upon women in the past Women were looked down upon in the past.
      The nurse takes good care of the children. The children are taken good care of by the nurse.
    4. 含有双宾的主动结构变为被动结构.
      主动结构中若有两个宾语, 变为被动结构时, 只将其中一个宾语变为主语, 另一个宾语不变, 通常称为保留宾语 (retained object).
      We allowed him an hour to get to the airport.
      He was allowed an hour to get to the airport.
      An hour was allowd him to get to the airport.
    5. 含有复合宾语的主动结构变为被动结构.
      主动结构中如有复合宾语 (宾语+宾语补语), 变为被动结构时只将元复合宾语中的宾语变为主语, 宾语补语部分不变, 但语法上变为主语补语 (subject complement).
      We advised him to practice speaking English.
      He was advised to practice speaking English.
    6. 下列动词的主动形态表被动含义
      1. lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride, drive, write (且常与 well, easily, badly 等副词连用)
        Glass breaks easily.
        The car rides/drives smoothly.
        The case locks easily.
        The book sells well.
      2. 系动词(look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, turn, keep, …):
        The steel feels cold.
        I don’t want to sound like anyone else, but I’ve had a hard life.
      3. 表示开始、结束、运动的动词: begin, finish, start, open, move 等
        The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day.
      4. 表示事物(或人)客观上"需要": want, need, require 作谓语
        用动名词作宾语一般主动形式表示被动含义. (等价于动词不定式的被动形式)
        若动名词是不及物动词, 后面还需跟上相应的介词.
      5. 某些作表语的形容词(easy, difficult, light, heavy, fit, good, safe, comfortable, dangerous, pleasant, …)后面(作状语)的动词不定式主动表被动
        如 She is easy to approach
      6. have sb. do sth. 和 have sb./sth. doing 和 have sth. done 的区别
        1. have sb. do sth.
          让某人做某事, have 可用 let, make 代替. 不定式往往表示一次性的动作, 且强调动作已经完成或尚未发生.
          The police had the boy stand with back to his father.
        2. have sb./sth. doing
          让某人或某物一直做某事, have 可用 keep 代替, 现在分词往往具有持续、进行、主动的含义.
          The teacher had the students reading aloud the text for a quarter.
          The two men had their lights burning all night long.
        3. have sth. done
          1. 托某人做(=ask sb. to do sth.)
            The driver had hist car washed once a week.
          2. 遭受某人做. 过去分词的动作由他人完成, 被动含义且强调动作已完成.
            He had his wallet stolen when he was shopping.

杂项 Misc

  • Equivalent
    pursue sth. = in pursuit of sth.
    be + adj. = be + of + n. e.g. He is an able man = He is a man of ability

  • Mass Noun, Uncountable Noun

  • Append Gerund only
    practice V(+ing)

  • hardly Verb(v3) when
    no sooner Verb(v2) than

  • do well to 最好做…

  • 一个名词放在另一个名词前作定语时, 通常用单数, 但 “销售税” 却是 sales tax. 又如: sports meeting 运动会.

  • part of 某物的一部分; a part of 某物的一小部分.

  • no more than = only
    He is no more than a beginner = He is only a beginner.

  • nothing but 仅仅, 不过是

  • have [nothing,much] to do with 与…{有,无,有很大}关系.

  • 倒装
    主语和表语: Very busy must be their thoughts = Their thoughts must be very busy.
    Many of the things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand.
    They | seem to know | many of the things that animals know how to do | either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand.
    only + 状语 引出一个句子时, 该句必须倒装.

    Nor 引出的否定句用倒装: Nor is this all.

  • be made from…, be made of… 前者看不到原材料, 后者可以看出原材料.

  • if…only 表示尚欠缺的条件.
    In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered.
    在对一些现象的解释还不为人们所知的情况下, 科学的观点是, 其中必有原因, 只是尚未被发现罢了.

  • too/so + adj. + a/an + noun.
    It’s too difficult a task for me.
    I’ve never before met so intelligent a person as he is.

    had + noun. + V3
    We’ll have this house built in 5 months.
    He had his hair cut yesterday.

  • be to 相当于一个情态助动词. 可表示 “将”, “要”, “应”, 会" 等意思.
    I am to see him today at six o’clock.
    You are not to smoke in this room.

  • not so much…as 与其说…不如…
    He is not so much as scientist as a writer. 与其说他是个科学家, 不如说他是个作家.

  • 即可接动名词也可接不定式的及物动词
    attempt begin commence continue deserve disdain dread endure forget hate help intend like love mean need neglect omit propose regret remember scorn try want

  • stop 跟动名词时时及物动词; 后跟不定式时时不及物动词, 不定式时目的状语
    When did you stop working?
    We stopped to rest.

  • try 跟不定式作宾语, 意为 “设法”, “试图” (需费力或有困难). 后跟动名词作宾语, 意为 “试一试”.
    You must try to be more careful.
    Let’s try knocking at the back door.


在英语句子中, 通常主语放在谓语动词的前面, 这样的语序称为自然语序 (natural word-order). 反之, 如果谓语动词的一部分或全部放在主语前面, 则称为倒装语序 (inverted word-order)
there be 句型和多数疑问句都是倒装句.


这些词与词组主要有: never, scarcely, hardly, rarely, little, nowhere, no sooner…than, not only, in no case, in no way, on no account, at no time, under/in no circumstances.
这些词/词组引出的倒装句中, 倒装到主语前的那部分谓语动词通常是助动词、情态动词或 be 动词.
Never before has anyone applied such principles to practice.
Hardly had he said anything before he left.
Scarcely had she fallen asleep when a knock at the door awakened her.
No sooner had Anne arrived there than she fell ill.
Rarely did Tom leave his lab those days.
Little did I think a year ago that I could work for your company.

only 引出的状语放在句首时

Only then did the doctor realize that his patient needed surgery.
Only after class was he allowed to raise the question.
Only when you adjust down your price to some extent can we conclude the business.
Only once did his father call his full name.

here, there, then, thus 等副词放在句首, 且谓语为 come, go, be, exist, follow 等不及物动词时

Here is a book for you.
Here comes the bus.
There goes the bell.
There exist two types of flying machines.
Then follows the fashion show.
Thus arose the division between the developed and developing countries.

句首为 so, nor, neither 等副词, 表明前句说明的情况也适用于本句时

Richard can speack Japanese. So can his sister.
Copper is a good conductor, So are many other metals.
He didn’t say anything. Nor/Neither did his assistant.
The first one wasn’t good enough and neither was the second.

在虚拟语气中, 非真是条件从句中的连词省略时

这种情况下倒装到主语前的是助动词 had, should 和动词 were.
Had I left a little earlier, I would have caught the train.
Should it rain tomorrow, what could we do?
Were there no air, there would be no sound.


有的句子因为主语较长而谓语较短, 为使句子保持平衡需要倒装. 有的倒装是为了上下文之间衔接得更紧凑. 这类倒装并非语法上的要求, 而是一种修辞性倒装.
Sitting in front of the counter is the young father who wishes to purchase a life insurance policy and agrees to pay a sum of $200 per year for 40 years. (此句主语因有一个定语从句而变得很长, 故倒装到谓语之后)

More important is the question of how to face the possibilities of illness, injury, death and financial loss.

The writing of a dictionary involves a number of tasks. Among them are the reading of literature, the copying of words on cards, the sorting of the cards and the writing of definitions. (后句倒装可与前句衔接更紧密)


派生法 Derivation

在词根 (root) 前面或后面加上词缀来产生新词.

  • 构成名词的后缀
    人或物 -er, -or, -ist, -ee, -ian, -ese, -ant
    如: thiner; translator, conductor; physicist; employee, trainee; Italian; Japanese; assistant.

    行为、性质、状态 -ance, -ence, -[a]tion, -sion, -ics, -ing, -ity, -ment, -ness, -th, -ty, -ure, -ship
    如: acceptance; confidence; reptition, preparation; discussion; physics, fabrics; wedding; reality; settlement; hardness; length; safety; failure, pressure; leadership.

  • 构成形容词的后缀 -able, -ible, -al, ful, -less, -ish, -ive, -ous, -an, -ic, -ly, -y, -ant, -ent, -ary, -en
    available; permissible; national; powerful; useless; selfish; decisive; famous; American; scientific; friendly; noisy; significant; dependent; imaginary; golden.

  • 构成副词的后缀 -ly, -ward, -wise.
    regularly; eastward; otherwise.

  • 动词后缀 -ise (美国 -ize), -en, -ify
    realize; widen; verify.


  • 相反意义 un-, dis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, de-
    unhappy; dislike; informal; impossible; irregular; illegal; devalue.
  • 重新 re- retell
    错误 mis- misunderstand
    反、防 anti- anti-social
    前 ex- ex-president
    预先 pre- preheat
    后 post- postgraduate
    先 fore- forecast
    自我、自动 self- self-control
    自动 auto- automobile
    超级、上层 super- supermarket
    下级 sub- subdivide
    之间、互相 inter- interact
    跨越、移 trans- transport
    外、极 ultra- ultraviolet
    半 semi- semiconductor
    副 vice- vice-premier
    单 uni- uniform
    双 bi- bicycle
    多 multi- multistage


  1. prefix
    anti- : "opposite" antisocial
    auto- : "by oneself or itself" autobiography
    bi- : "two" bicycle
    bio- : "biological" biology
    co- : "together" cooperate
    counter- : "against" counteraccack
    de- : "negative, remove" defrost
    dis- : "negative, opposite" dishonest
    en- : "make it in...state" enlarge
    il- : "not, used before the letter 'l'" illegal
    im- : "not, used before the letter 'm', 'b', 'p'" impossible
    in- : "not" inactive
    ir- : "not, used before the letter 'r'" irregular
    inter- : "between" international
    mid- : "middle" midday
    mini- : "small" miniskirt
    mis- : "wrong" misunderstand
    non- : "not" nonstop
    post- : "after" postwar
    pre- : "before" prewar
    re- : "again" rewrite
    sub- : "below" subway
    super- : "great" superhero
    tele- : "large distance" telescope
    trans- : "across" transpacific
    tri- : "three" triangle
    un- : "not" unimportant
    under- : "beneath", "not enough" underestimate
  2. suffix
    1. 名词后缀
      -ance, -ence
      -ancy, -ency
      -er, -or
      -hood childhood
      -ion, -tion, -ation
      -ology biology, psychology
      -ship friendship, membership
      -ty, -ity
    2. 动词后缀
      -en                  fasten. shorten
      -fy, -ify satisfy, simplify
      -ize, -ise modernize
    3. 形容词后缀
      -able, -ible, -ble
      -al environmental
      -ic, -ical atomic, economical
      -ish bluish
      -some troublesome
    4. 副词后缀
      -ward(s) backward(s), afterward(s)

合成法 Compounding


  • 名词: hardware, network, well-being.
  • 形容词: duty-free, far-reaching, face-to-face.
  • 动词: overthrow, heat-treat, counteroffer.

转换法 Conversion

词形不变, 词性转变. 通常词义与转换前有密切联系, 但有时差异很大.

look v. 看 → n. 相貌
back n. 后背 → v. 支持
second num. 第二; → v. 赞成

有些双音节词转换后, 重音发生变化. 通常名词重音在前, 动词重音在后, 有时读音也有不同.
TODO: 补充注音

名词 动词
conduct 行为 传导
digest 文摘 消化
export 出口 出口
increase 增加 增加
produce 农产品 生产
refuse 垃圾 拒绝


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